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U.S. Government/Politics
Hemant Kumar Sharma
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dylan Notetaker on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 101 - 006 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Hemant Kumar Sharma in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.




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Date Created: 05/01/16
 First Exam Review Sheet, Political Science 101: Exam date: February 22nd st Here is the review sheet for the 1  exam, which will consist of 50 multiple choice  questions worth 2 points each. This review sheet is broken up into sections that include  textbook chapters and Power Points. There may be some overlap among these – but that  will help you study a bit more!  Email Sharma at with any questions!!  Be sure to finndh Mindtap homework for Chapters 1, 2, 3, 9, and 14 by 9 AM on  February 22 . Key Terms / Concepts from Chapter 1: The Democratic Republic A. Define: politics, democratic republic (or representative democracy), conservative,  liberal B. What differentiates different political ideologies today (Democrat, Republican,  Libertarian)? C. What differentiates direct democracy from a republic? Key Terms / Concepts from Chapter 2: The Constitution A. Define:  natural rights­ the idea that individuals are born with certain privileges that should not be taken from them (life, liberty, property) social contract­ an understood agreement between an individual and their  community that comes with sacrifices for the greater good the Great Compromise­ compromise at the constitutional convention between the  Virginia and new jersey plans, led to the bicameral legislature we see today supremacy clause­ Article VI mentions this, says that the federal government  rules over the states, laws it passes cannot be interfered with by the states B. What were some problems associated with the Articles of Confederation? ­ Federal government couldn’t tax states ­ Fed. Couldn’t form an army ­ All states needed to approve any laws passed by the Fed C. What were the main differences between the Virginia and New Jersey plans? ­ VA assigned representatives by population, NJ wanted all states to  have the same amount D. What are the different mechanisms in place to ensure that no one branch of  government becomes too strong? ­ Separation of powers ­ Supreme Ct can overturn any legislation via constitutional  interpretation  ­ Other mechanisms of Sep of powers E. What separated the Federalists and Anti­Federalists? ­ F’s wanted Constitution ratified ­ AF’s didn’t o Wanted a bill of rights to secure liberty o Thought it was elitist o Feared large central gov F. How can amendments be proposed and subsequently ratified? (This can be an “all of the following mechanisms except” type of question) Key Terms / Concepts from Chapter 3: Federalism A. Define:  enumerated powers­ powers specifically assigned to the states or the federal  government in the constitution implied powers­ powers not listed in the constitution, assigned to the states in the  th 10  amendment inherent powers­ powers the executive and legislative branches are given in order  to do their jobs dual federalism­ a government that consists of a state government and a federal  government remain supreme in their own spheres cooperative federalism­ where national, state, and local governments work  together to solve common problems Full Faith and Credit Clause­ in Article IV, says states will respect the laws and  proceedings of all other states federal mandate­ a policy that requires state or local governments to perform  certain actions B. What are some of the benefits of having a federal system? problems? ­ Protected from “tyranny of the majority” ­ Free speech & free press protected ­ Establishment clause prevents religious doctrine, laws from being  imposed by the government ­ Separation of powers helps prevent a gov that’s too powerful, rash ­ States and local govs can handle issues in their own spheres, closest to  the effected communities ­ States can more closely reflect the philosophies of their citizens ­ Commerce clause ensures the USA as a free trade area ­ Divides power among states for more effective governance Disadvantages ­ Prevents creation of a consistent national policy ­ Produces a lack of accountability, hard to assign blame for policies C. What is the Necessary and Proper Clause, and why is it important? ­ Congress can make laws that are necessary for carrying out its duties.  The definition of what is necessary can be stretched to include a  variety of aspects, extending congress’s power Key Terms / Concepts from Chapter 9: Voting and Elections A. Define:  primary election­ an election that determines a political party’s nomination for the general election general election­ an election between candidates, usually representing different  parties that determines who will hold a public office PAC­ a committee that represents a corporation, labor union, or special interest  group. Raises and gives limited campaign donations super PAC­ gets unlimited funds from organizations and individuals to be spent  independently of political campaigns, usually spent on advertising caucus­ a meeting of party members to elect candidates and propose policies coattail effect­ when a representative of one party is doing well and that raises  public opinion of other representatives from his party  B. What are the different ways in which money can make its way into the campaign  process? ­ Individual donations ­ PAC’s ­ Super PAC’s (advertising) ­ “Matching Funds” ­ 501c4­ non­profit group that is politically active ­ 527 groups C. What is the importance of Citizens United v. FEC in regards to campaign finance? ­ Allows money to play a role in politics  D. What are the different types of primaries? E. What is the role of the Electoral College? What are problems associated with it? F. According to the book, how do voting patterns and voter turnout in the U.S.  compare to other countries? Key Terms / Concepts from Chapter 14: The Courts A. Define:   common law­ decisions based on prevailing customs, applied to similar situations, became common in the nation precedent­ a court ruling based upon prior rulings stare decisis judicial activism judicial restraint  judicial implementation (know that courts cannot implement their decisions  without help from the other branches of government) B. What are the different levels in the federal court system? ­ Trial courts, circuit court (appellate court), supreme court C. What is the process by which justices make it to the Supreme Court? D. How many justices are on the Supreme Court? E. What case did the Supreme Court use as a vehicle for establishing its power of  judicial review? Key Terms / Concepts From Power Points: “The Founding” Power Point Mayflower Compact­ first governing document in the US House of Burgess­ first representative assembly James Madison (he is known as the ‘Father of the ______________’) Thomas Jefferson (what did he write?) King George III Thomas Paine and “Common Sense” Shay’s Rebellion, Articles of Confederation Great Compromise / Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan (bicameral legislature) Differences between House of Representatives (population) and Senate (2 per state) 3/5 compromise “Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness” becomes “Life, Liberty and Property”  Alexis DeTocqueville­ usa functions in interest groups Bill of Rights (to what amendments does this term refer) first 10 Republic vs. Direct Democracy Ballot initiative, Referendum, Recall = Forms of Direct Democracy Capitalism Federalism Federalists vs. Anti­Federalists Federalist #10: What are key threats to a democratic form of government? ­ Tyranny of the majority and factions Federalist #51: What traits of government are needed? ­ Separation of powers Federalist #78: What is the least dangerous branch of government (according to author  Alexander Hamilton)? ­ Judicial branch Checks and balances / separation of powers John Locke ­ Consent of the governed Living Document vs. Originalism Liberal vs. Conservative (Democrat vs. Republican) Classical liberalism (note that this differs from ‘Liberal’ today) ­ Individual freedom & minimal government French and Indian War, and how it leads to the so­called ‘Great Squeeze’ ­ Series of taxes on the colonists to pay for war Coercive Acts/ Intolerable Acts (largely a response to Boston Tea Party) Supremacy Clause of Constitution (federal law is supreme) Marijuana Legalization (basics—what states legalized first) Sam Adams / Sons of Liberty ­ 1  interest group Elections and Campaigns Power Point Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina Know the key Republican and Democratic candidates (Trump, Cruz, Rubio, Kasich /  Clinton, Sanders) Super PAC: Know the ‘coordinating rule’, how much corporations can give PAC (Political Action Committee); difference from Super PAC 501 C4 527  ­ Soft money­ not direct to the candidate ­ Can’t expressly advocate National Party Committee and how its role has changed since era of “Boss Tweed” ­ Often decided who would run & fund campaign Citizens United v. FEC McCutcheon v. FEC Midterm elections vs. Presidential elections Kennedy Nixon Debate of 1960 Gerrymandering (Packing, Cracking) Electoral College (number of votes to win!) ­ 270 votes, 538 total Popular Vote vs. Electoral Votes Primary / Caucus (know importance of Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina) “open primary” vs. “closed primary” system Delegates and Super Delegates Koch brothers Voter turnout in the U.S. Why do we remember Howard Dean from 2004? Individual donation limit on direct cash contribution to a candidate Rise of the Tea Party Iron Triangle ­ Relationship between bureaucracy, congress, and lobbyists working to  shape public policy Interest Group Military­Industrial­Complex Lobbying $50 limit ­ Lobbyists limited to $50 gifts to officials Pluralism ­ Politics = struggle amongst interest groups Judicial Branch Power Points Antonin Scalia Life tenure District Court (trials) Circuit Court (appeals) State crime vs. federal crime (Dual Court System) Civil court vs. criminal court Number of Justices on Supreme Court How justices get their jobs! (President’s role, Senate’s role) Senatorial courtesy Writ of Certiorari (“Rule of 4”) / Approximately how many cases do they hear in a year? Solicitor General Attorney General Retention Election for state judicial positions  Who is Richard Baumgartner? Judicial Filibuster Judicial Activism / Restraint Precedent  / Stare Decisis Amicus Brief Majority Opinion / Dissenting Opinion / Concurring Opinion William Marbury (Marbury v. Madison) John Marshall (Secretary of State then Supreme Court Chief Justice) James Madison (new Secretary of State) Jefferson vs. Adams in Election of 1800: Why was this important to the case? Judiciary Act of 1789


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