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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatyana Mims on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Hasin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Personal Nutrition in Health Sciences at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Nutrition for Life Pregnancy & Lactation Pregnancy Tremendous physiological changes Demand healthful dietary & lifestyle choices Need for almost every nutrient increases o Successful Pregnancy Healthy, full term infant > 5.5 lbs o Low birth weight infants < 5.5 LBS (~ 2500 g) Small for date Full-term inadequate growth Premature Born < 37 weeks o Preconception Nutrition Weight Maternal obesity o Complicate pregnancy & delivery o Compromise baby’s health Low pre-pregnancy weight increase the risk of: o Low-birth-weight infant o Preterm delivery Inadequate nutrition stores Compromise development of placenta o Unable to deliver nutrients to fetus-low birth weight infant Vitamins Increased demands often need supplementation Folic acid o High demand during pregnancy Father’s role Vitamin E deficiency o Immotility of sperm infertility o Folate/Folic Acid Required for protein tissue construction Prevents neural tube defects Spina bifida Neural tube development occurs before the 6 week of fetal life All women of childbearing age –not just pregnant women- should consume adequate amounts of folate Maternal Physiology (Changes & Nutrition) Changes in Maternal Physiology: Growth of maternal issues o Uterus o Breast tissues Increase in size to store energy as fat for Last trimester & Lactation o Blood volume increases ~ 50% During Pregnancy o First trimester Additional calories not necessary Size of baby: large grape o Nausea & vomiting “morning sickness” Not fully understood (may be reaction to intensified sense of smell due to hormonal changes) o Food cravings Occur after fetus has developed Vary among individuals Related to hormonal changes or emotional needs Not nutritional necessity Craving for & eating nonfood items- Pics Starch, ice, clay, laundry detergent Immediately report to physician o Second &third trimester Additional 300 calories per day Fetal tissue synthesis require extra-protein & zinc Increased energy metabolism Extra vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6, magnesium & iodine Increased synthesis of red blood cells Folate, B12 & iron Fetal bones mineralize & extra minerals in mother’s skeleton to support lactation Extra calcium & phosphorus Breast-Feeding (Best bet for babies and moms!) Human milk for human babies o Primary benefit Nutritional o Complete source of nutrition for first 4-6 months of life Benefits for infants o Immune factors o Psychological & emotional benefits o Always ready to eat o Perfect temperature o Sterile o Easy to digest o Less allergy Benefits for mother o Helps uterus contract o Convenience o Less expensive o No waste o Help mother lose body fat o May reduce risk Ovarian cancer Breast cancer Osteoporosis Dietary Cautions for breastfeeding women o Almost anything consumed ends up in breast milk Coffee (caffeine) Alcohol o Environmental contaminants Many are fat soluble -> stored in fat tissues o Drugs & medications Infants grow fast! o Growth rate higher in infancy than any other time in life Double wt. in 4 months Triple wt. in 12 months Infant feeding recommendations o Breastfeeding 4-6 months (exclusively) o Specially prepared solid foods > 4 months o Introduce solids one at a time for a few days Iron fortified cereal as first solid food Toddlers (1-5 Years) How much, how often? o Transition from liquid/ semi-solid to solid diet o Establish healthy dietary pattern Encourage normal growth Discourage unhealthful eating behaviors o Parents as good examples o Maintain regular meal patterns o Be flexible with meals o Drink water rather than juice or soft drinks Excessive juice intake Excessive weight Diarrhea (certain juices) o Apple, pear o Nutritious snacks Fruits Vegetables Low fat yogurt or cheese sticks Low fat whole grain crackers o ‘tablespoons’ to ‘quarts’ Serving sizes ¼ to 1/3 of adult portions Offer less than what they might eat Let them ask for more Respect hunger cues Avoid membership in “clean plate” club Encourages overeating o Possible weight problems Of food aversions o Possible nutritional problems Parents should decide what foods to offer children. Children should decide how much to eat. Childhood (5-12 Years) Mealtime Tactics o Children learn by watching o Be there during mealtime o Kids should sit while they eat o Use kid-size dishes & utensils o Reward with attention & affection-not food o Avoid idea of “forbidden foods” o Plenty of time… o Plain foods they can recognize o Get kids involved o New foods at beginning of meals o Serve same food in different forms