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Chapter 12: Personality

by: Brooke McGloon

Chapter 12: Personality Psych 101

Marketplace > James Madison University > Psychlogy > Psych 101 > Chapter 12 Personality
Brooke McGloon
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Chapter 12: Personality
Introductory Psychology
Dr. David Daniel
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
Psych 101 Chapter 12: Personality Personality: unique pattern of enduring thoughts, feelings, and actions that characterize a person  Is stable (remains the same our whole lives)  Guides the way you interpret the world  Guides how you act on thoughts/feelings Personality theories: tells us how we’re supposed to be Psychodynamic theories: Freud, Skinner- there is no free will (not in control because you can’t get to your unconscious) Psychoanalysis:  Unconscious mind (a vast reservoir of often unacceptable and frequently hard-to-tolerate thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories)  Unconscious force drives behavior  Free association  Id (pleasure, immediate gratification), ego (getting the id what it wants realistically), superego (real, the ideal)  Defense mechanisms (methods to reduce anxiety) o Repression: pushing feeling so down into unconscious so you don’t have to deal with it o Regression: returning to earlier stage to cope (childhood stage) o Reaction formation: make impulses seem the opposite (lust to disgust, love to hate) (feel opposite so not tempted by the feeling) o Projection: projecting what’s inside them onto something/someone else (“I think she wants me” = I want her) o Rationalization: self-justification (make reasons why it’s okay) (selling to superego) (compromising values to make it seem like there’s no conflict) (“I can study anytime, friends only here this weekend”) o Denial: “not I’m NOT”, “that never happened” o Displacement: taking emotion out on another person because cannot take it out on authority figure (aiming impulse at more acceptable target) (food instead of sexual target) o Resistance: angry/quit because getting closer to the problem (don’t want to deal with it/avoid) o Transference: use therapist as substitute (for mom/dad)  Emphasis on early experience  Life-long consequences  Psychosexual stages  Oedipus complex  Electro-complex  “Penis-envy”  Insight into problems is gained by recognizing unconscious thoughts and emotions (and working through them) Neo-Freudians  Built on his theories  Broke away in two important ways: o Placed more emphasis on the conscious mind’s role in interpreting experience and coping with the environment o Doubted sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations (emphasized loftier motives and social interactions)  Adler: o Childhood social (not sexual) tensions are crucial for personality formation o Believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood inferiority feelings that trigger our strivings for superiority and power (inferiority complex) Carl Jung  The unconscious contains more than our repressed thoughts and feelings  Collective unconscious: a common reservoir of images, or archetypes, derived from our species’ universal experiences—explains why spiritual concerns are deeply rooted and why people in different cultures share certain myths and images Rorschach (inkblot test)  Created the most widely used projective test  Showed a patient a serious of ink blobs and record what they saw Humanism (1960s)  People are in charge of themselves (responsible but also can fix)  Freewill  Human potential movement (unique) Humanistic theories  View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth  Only good and things that get in its way  Emphasis on personal growth and fulfillment of potential  Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Maslow Hierarchy of Basic Needs (once basic needs are met, we can achieve higher goals)  Self-actualization: motivation to achieve one’s potential (after self-esteem achieved)  Studied healthy, creative people rather than troubled clinical cases Carl Rogers  People are basically good and endowed with self-actualization tendencies  Growth promoting climate requires three conditions: genuineness, acceptance, empathy Self concept: (for Maslow and Rogers a central feature of personality) all the thoughts and feelings we have in response to the question: “Who am I?” (if positive, we perceive the world positively; if negative, we fall short of our ideal self and feel dissatisfied and unhappy) Trait Theories  Personality stable so has to be measured throughout the years  Has to be valuable and reliable Personality inventories  Cover a wide rang of feelings and behavior—assess several traits at once  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)- assesses “abnormal” personality tendencies but also illustrates a good way of developing a personality inventory (empirically derived- from a large group, selected those traits which differentiated the groups) The Big Five  CANOE (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion)  Different mix for everyone person (uniqueness) Social Cognitive Theories  Social-cognitive perspective  Emphasizes the interaction of our traits without situations  Reciprocal determinism: interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment


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