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Final Week of notes

by: samantha Flavell

Final Week of notes GEO 100

samantha Flavell
SUNY Oswego
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These are the final set of new notes before final review.
Physical Geology
Rachel Lee (P)
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by samantha Flavell on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Rachel Lee (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at State University of New York at Oswego.

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Date Created: 05/02/16
May 2, 2016 Geo 100­800 Prof. Nandini Kar Hot Springs and Geysers *Hot springs are groundwater discharges of hot water  ­Temp range between 30 and 104 degreees Celsius ­Waters are usually high in dissolved mineral *Hot springs develop in two settings ­Where ground water surfaces along faults ­In geothermal regions *Where deep groundwater surfaces along faults ­deep groundwater is warm ­the source of the heat is the geothermal gradient *In geothermal regions *High geothermal gradients *Boiling water and steam erupt cyclically from geysers ­Water is heated to the boiling point in a vertical spring ­Pressure exerted by the water column prevents boiling ­Some water escapes Artesian Flow *In some areas groundwater is under pressure in a confined aquifer. This results in an artesian  flow, where water can rise to the surface without pumping. *Distinctive Geological Features ­Boiling springs create bubbling mudpots ­Hot springs precipitate dissolved minerals upon cooling. These minerals crystallize as  deposits of travertine ­Geothermal springs may appear as brightly colored pool. Colors are due to bacterial  metabolism of sulfur minerals. Effects of Groundwater Pumping *A cone of depression exists wherever water is pumped faster than infiltration of groundwater  flow can compensate *They can be small and local (individual house well) or large and regional (in a heavy  agricultural area) Urbanization and Groundwater Withdrawal *Urbanized areas are ready targets for desertification, loss of wetlands and other problems linked to increase in the ration of groundwater withdrawal to groundwater recharge. Subsidence *In areas of long­term over pumping, if recharge is slow, subsidence can be a major problem.  Groundwater in pore space in sediments and rocks and acts as support. Withdraw the water and  aquifer material compacts irregularly. When the surface subsides construction may suffer great  damage. *Subsidence is equally problematical in any area where material is withdrawn from the ground  (oil, mines, etc.) It can be combatted by injecting water back into the aquifer as groundwater is  withdrawn. Salt Water Intrusion *One consequence of over pumping in coastal regions is the encroachment of saline seawater  into fresh aquifer. *To combat this, many coastal communities re­inject waste water into coastal aquifers Water Quality *Groundwater’s are ordinarily richer in soluble elements than surface waters, due to the  interaction of water and rock or soil *This interaction can be beneficial though, effectively less­soluble elements and compounds Pollution *Can be described in terms of the nature of sources ­Point source pollution: comes from a singular source in space and tends to contribute a  set of specific pollutants i.e. Leaking storage tank/ landfill ­Nonpoint Source Pollution: Comes from sources that are poorly defined in space and  may contribute highly variable pollutants i.e. runoff, atmospheric deposition Heavy Metals *Although almost 1/3 of all elements fill a bio­essential role, there are limits *Most of the heavy metals are toxic, even in small doses and many are also carcinogens ­Arsenic (As) ­Cadmium (cd) ­Chromium (Cr) ­Cobait  ­Copper (Cu) ­Lead (Pb) ­Mercury (Hg) ­Nickel (Ni) ­Tin (Sn) ­Vanadium (V) ­Zinc (Zn) Contaminant Plumes *Different pollutants will behave differently in the ground, but they can generally be described  by a “plume” of region that has variable concentration of the contaminant materials. Point Source Groundwater Contamination *Pumping can change how groundwater flows, and hence how contaminants are transported in  the subsurface. The Main Techniques for Clean Up *The US EPA group their endeavors to clean up superfund sites into 3 main groups 1) Containment of contaminated material (capping soil, constructing drainage control) 2) Separation of contaminant from soil or water (soil vapor extraction, flushing, washing,  thermal desorption) 3) Rendering the material less toxic (bioremediation, incineration) Human Impacts on Groundwater *In arid areas, irrigation increases water loss to evaporation *Fertilizing crops, especially in arid areas, contributes to salination of fresh water resources *Urbanization (paving, building) decreases infiltration and increases runoff loss *Removal of forested lands and desertification increases runoff loss and shrink aquifers 10 Ways of Protecting and Conserving Groundwater 1) Dispose of chemicals properly 2) Take used motor oil and batteries to a recycling center 3) Limit the amount of fertilizer used on plants 4) Save cold shower water, take short showers 5) Shut off water while brushing teeth 6) Run full loads of dishes and laundry 7) Check for leaky faucets and have them fixed 8) Buy water and detergent efficient washers 9) Keep a pitcher of drinking water in the refrigerator 10)Get involved in water education 


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