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Bio 102 Unit 4 Week 1 Notes

by: l_welden

Bio 102 Unit 4 Week 1 Notes Bio 102

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Biology > Bio 102 > Bio 102 Unit 4 Week 1 Notes
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Notes from Lecture in Outline Form
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by l_welden on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
Biology 102 Unit 4 Week 1 Notes Day 1  I. Climate A. Definition: The aggregated pattern of weather over time­­­does not necessarily mean  temperature 1. Temperature changes affects changes in patterns 2. Climate change: any substantial change in climate that lasts for an extended period  (decades or more) 3. Global Warming: recent and continuing increase in the average global temperature B. Where do we get our information?  1. Modeling (such as for hurricanes) ­­­some published models are not as robust as  others 2. Need to think about where you get your data from and how robust the models are  3. Models are constantly adjusted and improved upon for predictive climate science  4. Models are not simply biased towards desired results  C. Extreme Events 1. A shift in average events over time 2. Uses historical data to keep track of this 3. As frequency of extreme events increases, accurately predicting outcomes becomes  more challenging 4. There is large year­to­year variation on top of long­term trend D. Global Climate change 1. The Greenhouse effect: trapping of heat in Earth’s atmosphere ­ Includes CO2, water vapor, and methane ­ Transparent to solar radiation ­ Absorb or reflect heat ­ Contribute to increases in global temperatures in what is often called the  greenhouse effect ­ Increase in greenhouse gases enhances the effect ­  Leads to global warming ­ Last decade gas been warmest in the last 130 years­­­new record set in 2014 ­ Very obvious increase in carbon emission in the last 1000 years 2. Artic Warming ­ Artic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth ­ Affects many organisms o Polar Bears (rely on packed ice) ­Ocean: plays an important role in land climates ­ Why can we not compare ice in a glass to ice in the oceans: there is ice on land  instead of all the ice is in the water! ­what will be do with all this water? ­ice is very important for climatic records ­ice is also important because the snow reflects heat, so if we don’t have snow and  ice, the landscape will absorb more energy from the sun ­Ice­albedo: feedback­positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of snow­covered land, ice caps, glaciers or sea ice alters the albedo  E. The Carbon Cycle 1. Movement of carbon atoms between organic and inorganic molecules in the  environment 2. Fossil Fuels a. Are limited i. Demand for oil will increase over the next 25 years ii. Sources of fossil fuel are finite iii. Takes millions of years to replenish 3. Carbon Footprint: the measure of the total greenhouse gases produced by human  activities a. Burning Fossil Fuels b. Rice and Cattle c. Deforestation d. Concrete Production 4. The average US citizen consumes 12,133 kilowatt hours of electricity per year 5. Most common energy resources have byproducts, except for solar and wind  6. Emilania huxleyi – diatom a. Photosynthetic plankton species covered in calcite disks  7. Ocean Acidification:  a. We emit 30 B tons of CO2 annually b. The Oceans take up about 40% c. CO2 in water makes carbonic acid d. Oceans have become over 20% more acidic e. Harder for phytoplankton, coral, and crustaceans to make shells f. Phytoplankton support ocean like as they convert C02 to o2 8. Effects of Climate Change on other Ecosystems  a. In many plants and animals, life cycle events are triggered by warming  temperatures or day length b. As global temperatures warm, day length remains steady, natural interactions  may become out of sync i. Snowhares can be seen better against a green landscape ii. Plants may bloom before pollinators have emerged  iii. Combined effects of climate change on forest ecosystems in western  N. America have spawned catastrophic wildfire seasons 1. Warmer weather helps bark beetle 9. Zika Virus  a. Genus Favivirus, Family Flavivirdae  b. Related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile Virus


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