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Chapter 15: Therapy

by: Brooke McGloon

Chapter 15: Therapy Psych 101

Brooke McGloon
GPA 4.0

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Chapter 15: Therapy
Introductory Psychology
Dr. David Daniel
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
Psych 101 Chapter 15: Therapy  Mix of harsh and gentle methods  Two main categories influence the choice of treatment: the therapist’s training and expertise, and the disorder itself  Psychotherapy: a trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or achieve personal growth  Biomedical therapy: offers medication or other biological treatments  Some therapists combine techniques—taking an integrative, eclectic approach (using a blend of therapies) Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis  First of the psychological therapies—few clinicians today practice therapy as Freud did (considerable time and money) (evolved to psychodynamic perspective)  Healthier, less anxious living becomes possible when people release the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts  Freud assumed we do not fully know ourselves  There are threatening things that we seem to want not to know—that we disavow or deny  Goal: to bring patients’ repressed or disowned feelings into conscious awareness—reclaim their unconscious thoughts and feeling and giving them insight into the origins of their disorders (which helped to reduce growth- impending inner conflicts)  Emphasizes the power of childhood experiences so calls for historical reconstruction Techniques of psychoanalysis  Free association: saying aloud whatever comes to one’s mind  One edits their thoughts as they speak to prevent embarrassing, trivial, irrelevant, or shameful things coming out (resistance-defending against sensitive material)  The interpretation by the therapist of these resistances may illuminate the underlying wishes, feelings, and conflicts you are avoiding  As relationship goes on, one feels positive or negative feelings for therapist— therapist may suggest one is transferring feelings that they have experienced in earlier relationships Psychodynamic Therapy:  Try to help people understand their current symptoms by focusing on themes across important relationships, including childhood experiences and the therapist relationship  Exploring past relationships may help clients understand the origin of their current difficulties  Client-therapist meetings take place once or twice a week, often for only a few weeks or months  Patients meet with their therapist face to face as they explore and gain perspective into their defended against thoughts and feelings  Therapists introduce them to themselves  Insight therapies—try to give clients new insights Humanistic therapy  Emphasized people’s inherent potential for self-fulfillment  Attempt to reduce the inner conflicts that interfere with natural development and growth  Insight therapies—try to give clients new insights  Aim to boost people’s self-fulfillment (with self-awareness and self- acceptance), immediate responsibility for one’s actions, conscious thoughts, and present and future  Carl Rogers’ client-centered therapy (person-centered therapy) (involved active listening because most people already possessed resources for growth, and unconditional positive regard) Behavioral therapy  Problem behaviors ARE the problem  Learning principles useful tools for eliminating unwanted behaviors  Phobias or sexual dysfunctions are learned behaviors—so replace them with new, constructive behaviors learned through classical or operant conditioning Classical Conditioning Techniques: o Counter-conditioning pairs the trigger stimulus (ex. the enclosed space of an elevator) with a new response (relaxation) that cannot coexist with fear o Exposure therapies try to change people’s reactions by repeatedly exposing them to stimuli that trigger unwanted reactions—with this repeated exposure of what they normally avoid or escape, they adapt o You cannot simultaneously be anxious and relaxed; therefore, if you can repeatedly relax when facing anxiety-provoking stimuli, you can gradually eliminate your anxiety—systematic desensitization is widely used to treat phobias (trick is to proceed gradually) o Cognitive-behavior therapy  Using behavioral techniques on the way you think  How you think about the world: attributions o Positive: my boss is a jerk (no depression) o Negative: it’s worthless/I’m hopeless (depression)  Focus on attributional style (locus of control) o Allusion of control most important thing in psychology o Feel in control happy o Feel out of control/kicked around depression o Can fool them to think they’re in charge—most likely to then do what you want o Internal and external o Learned helplessness (in a situation can’t get out of, STOP trying to get out of it) (this leads to depression) (uncontrollable bad events perceived lack of control generalized helpless behavior) Does psychotherapy work?  Most therapists and clients believe in its effectiveness (might be because of cognitive dissonance-why would I spend that money if it doesn’t?)  Hans Eysenck: 1 to question value of psychotherapy  How can improvement be measured? (broad range of clients, therapists, and treatments)  Most people get better with time (we are built to have ups and downs)


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