Chapter 14: Psychological disorders
Chapter 14: Psychological disorders Psych 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
Reviews for Chapter 14: Psychological disorders
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/02/16
Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders A “clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior”—these disturbed/dysfunctional behaviors are maladaptive and interfere with normal day-to-day life Medical Model Mental disease Mental illness, is diagnosed, has symptoms (something you can measure), needs to be treated (proven), therapy, psychiatric hospital, cure (verifiable) Hospitals replaced asylums (sickness of the mind not crazy) Really medical problem??? o Deviant (different from other member of society/group) o Distressful (you or others around) o Dysfunctional (doesn’t work in the society you live in) (maladaptive) SZASZ-Mental Illness Medical Model o Szasz argued none of this is present in psych. and has bad effect on patients and society o Patient ROLE (I am sick, so I can do this…that…) (given script) o Legitimizes treating the “sick” person as sick/deviant Classifying disorders and labeling people Diagnostic classification can give us a thumbnail sketch of a person’s disordered behavior and ALSO attempt to predict the disorder’s future course and to suggest appropriate treatment The most common scheme for describing disorders and estimating how often they occur is the American Psychiatric Association’s 2013 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)—physicians and mental health workers use the detailed “diagnostic criteria and codes” in the DSM-5 to guide medical diagnoses and define who is eligible for treatments, including medication Diagnostic labels help them communicate about cases, pinpoint underlying cases, and share information about effective treatments Diagnostic definitions are also useful in research exploring causes and treatments of disorder Controversies with the DSM-5 o Some new or altered diagnoses are controversial o It casts too wide a net—bringing almost any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry o Once we label a person, we view them different AND labels can be self- fulfilling (Rosenhan study-1973) Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Have to have both*** (obsession and compulsion) Obsession- thought (reoccurring) (for it to be a disorder has to cause anxiety) Compulsion- behavior (to reduce anxiety-gets rid of obsessive thought) (can’t relax until you do it) Has to interfere with daily life to be a disorder Ex. obsession: germs/toxins compulsion: constant hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing Ex. obsession: symmetry/order/exactness compulsion: organize constantly Ex. obsession: always worried something terrible will happen compulsion: constantly turning everything off/checking everything Mood disorders Depression (most common) Sadness, hopelessness Lack of energy Don’t show emotion Manic Depressive disorder Total lack of energy Attribution style (where to attack) and depression: (internal/external and stable/temporary) Stressful experiences can lead to negative explanatory style Depressed mood cognitive and behavioral changes If one loses a job… Internal: it’s worthless/I’m hopelessdepression Internal: my boss sucks no depression Stable: I’ll never get over this depression Temporary: this is hard to take, but I’ll get through it no depression An event causes the depression but attributions help change the way you go about it and overcome it Suicide Depressed people (but not really depressed people) Most commit suicide when they start to get better—don’t have energy to commit it when really depressed but have thoughts, now that they’re better and have their energy back still have thoughts Highest rate with elderly, second highest with college aged people (18-22) Women three times more likely to attempt suicide Men three times more likely to be successful Native American #1 (cluster suicides), African Americans #2, White #3, Asians #4 Treatment: counseling #1, drugs #2 (SSRI-reuptake inhibitors) (deficiencies of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) (Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Celexa, and Lexapro) Depression is not a brain disorder BUT can play with chemicals in the brain to fix BEST is a combination of both (drugs help state BUT also need help with attributions-way of coping) Exercise works better than drugs (helps with brain chemistry) (BUT really depressed people don’t have energy to exercise) Bipolar (used to be called Manic Depressive disorder) Extremes (either depressed-women, anti-depressants or mania: gets in a lot of trouble, product of a lot of energy-men, jail) Both extremes interfere with daily life Personality Disorders “an enduring pattern of inner-experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it” (*enduring, inflexible, and socially maladaptive) (only becomes disorder when maladaptive) 3 categories: anxiety, eccentricity, and impulsivity Antisocial personality disorder (sociopath) Universal lack of conscience, often charming, manipulative, and shows no remorse (CEO’s, hedge fund managers, capitalism) Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessed with yourself—you’re so important and special Dissociative disorders A person’s conscious awareness is said to dissociate (become separated) Breaking with reality Awareness gets separated from previous (often painful) memories, thoughts, feelings, selves, etc. Dissociative Identity disorder Multiple personality disorder Controversial Easy to fake (night stalker) Schizophrenia (1%) Means “split” (schizo) “mind” (phrenia) The mind has suffered a split from reality that may show itself in disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions (not multiple personality) Live in a private inner world, preoccupied with the strange ideas and images that haunt them Thought disorder (disorganized; delusional; inappropriate thoughts, feelings, and actions) No filter Cannot concentrate or follow instructions because so many things going on in their head (hard to plan) Example of a psychosis Disrupts relationships and work Given a supportive environment and medication, over 40% of people with schizophrenia will have periods of a year or more of normal life experience (many others remain socially withdrawn and isolated or rejected for much of their lives) Patients with positive symptoms may experience hallucinations, talk in disorganized and deluded ways, and exhibit inappropriate laughter, tears, or rage (presence of inappropriate behaviors) Patients with negative symptoms have toneless voices, expressionless faces (flat affect state), or mute and rigid bodies (absence of appropriate behaviors) The thinking of a person with schizophrenia is fragmented and often distorted by false beliefs (delusions) (often believe they are threatened or being pursued) Word salad: jumbled ideas that make no sense to others (disorganized thinking) Disorganized thoughts may result from a breakdown in selective attention (people with schizophrenia cannot filter out stimuli) People with schizophrenia may see, feel, taste, or smell things that are not there (hallucinations)—most often the hallucinations are sounds, often voices making insulting remarks or giving orders Some perform senseless, compulsive acts such as continually rocking or rubbing an arm Others may remain motionless for hours (condition called catatonia) and then become agitated (frozen or repetitive actions) Paranoia: people are out to get them Delusions: (of grandeur) they’re important enough that world is organizing around them Prophet???? (hearing voices, visual hallucinations, feelings of grandeur) (all signs of sickness today) **Depression and Schizophrenia only disorders that are UNIVERSAL (both have genetic links) Drugs Ethnic and sex differences in responses to drug treatment Side effects huge Brain Abnormalities
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'