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POLS 2311 - Chapter 18: Foreign and Domestic Policy

by: Estefania Hernandez

POLS 2311 - Chapter 18: Foreign and Domestic Policy 2311

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > 2311 > POLS 2311 Chapter 18 Foreign and Domestic Policy
Estefania Hernandez

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Hello! Here are the notes from this week's lecture! Attached you will find examples and more in depth analysis of what she discussed but was not part of the powerpoint notes!
American Government and Politics
Dr. Abha Singh
Class Notes
Isolationism, disarmament, Marshall Plan, detende, The Cold War, Iraq
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Hernandez on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Abha Singh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
Chapter 18: Foreign and Defense Policy Roots of the U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy Isolationism in the Early Republic Great Britain v. France  Hamilton favored British.  Jefferson favored French. Isolationism  Sidestepping “entangling alliances”  George Washington’s Farewell Address Monroe Doctrine  Warne European powers to stay away from the Western Hemisphere The United States as an Emerging Power Trade Policy and Commerce  Tariffs  Most favored nation status Continued Expansion and Manifest Destiny  Major land taking and purchases  Divine plan for expansion to the pacific o Example: “God’s will that we expand from sea to sea” Dominance over the Western Hemisphere  Roosevelt Corollary: o Example: felt it is our responsibility to help Latin America Interest in Asia World War I and the Interwar Years U.S. initially neutral  European immigrants to U.S. deeply divided about the war German submarine warfare  Wilson: fighting “to make the world safe for democracy”  U.S. entered war in 1917 League of Nations  “Collective security”  Organization that prevent future wars o Example: Entire group of countries in this organization will protect each other. If you attack one country, you attack the entire group. Disarmament and Isolationism  League of Nations failed   Then created U.N. The United States as a World Power WWII and Its Aftermath U.N Security Council  America’s role: “leader of the free world” Chapter 18: Foreign and Defense Policy  5 organs: Security organ is most powerful President Franklin D. Roosevelt  Active role in diplomacy Economic Peace  International Monetary Fund (IMF)  World Bank  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) The Cold War and Containment Cold War  Defining feature of the international system from the end of WWII to collapse of communism in late 1980s and early 1990s Containment  Opposition to Soviet expansion Deterrence  Stockpile of nuclear weapons  ‘’Mutually assured destruction” (MAD) o Also known as Balance of Terror o Example: If two countries are almost equally in power, they cannot attack one another. Avoiding for both countries getting wiped out!  The Cold War in Europe Truman Doctrine  American policy or proving economic and military aid to countries fighting communism Marshall Plan  American financing of post-war rebuilding of Europe North Atlantic Treaty Organization  Collective security pact Berlin Wall  Divided communist East Berlin from democratic West Berlin The Cold War In Latin America Cuba  Fidel Castro came to power in 1959 Bay of Pigs 1961  Disastrous attempt to send armed exiled back to Cuba Cuba Missile Crisis, 1962  Closest world has been to nuclear war  President Kennedy established naval blockade of Cuba to prevent installations of Soviet missiles.  Lasted 2 weeks, soviet backed down. Chapter 18: Foreign and Defense Policy The Vietnam War Failed attempt by France to reassert colonial rule  France withdrew 1954 o Vietnam divided into communist North and non-communist South  North tried to unify 2 halves by force President Lyndon B. Johnson  Sent troops to fight North  Conflict became unpopular with Americans President Richard M. Nixon  Tried to turn over fighting to South Vietnamese  Ultimately, communist North prevailed Détente and Human Rights Richard M. Nixon  In 1969 declared end to “era of confrontation” and started of “era of negotiation” with Soviets  Era called détente  Better relations with China  Strategic Arms Limitations Treaties Jimmy Carter  Changed direction to focus on human rights  Targeted the Shah of Iran  Following shah’s exile, radical Iranians took Americans The End of the Cold War Reagan Doctrine  Commitment to combating communism by providing military aid to anti-communist groups Nicaragua  Reagan authorized creation of the contras, an armed guerilla group, to fight communist Sandinista government  Funded by selling arms to Iranian militants: the Iran-Contra Affair Mikhail Gorbackev’s reforms The Post-Cold War World Persian Gulf War  Operation Desert Storm China  US sought stronger ties to China, however President Bill Clinton  Democratic enlargement: actively promoting expansion of democracy and free markets World Trade Organization Chapter 18: Foreign and Defense Policy  Replaced GATT The War in Iraq President George W. Bush  Broader foreign policy agenda emerges in 2002  Bush declared Iraq, North Korea, and Iran an” axis of evil” Operation Iraq freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom Foreign and Defense Policy Decision Making The Constitution  Foreign policy powers given to government and not to states  Foreign policy powers divided between the president and Congress  President is commander in chief  Congress funds military and declares war  President appoints ambassadors subject to Senate The Executive Branch The President  Prominent in foreign and defense policy  Relies on national security council The Departments of State, Defense, and Homeland Security  State formulates foreign policy  Defense formulates military policy  Homeland straddles both policies The Intelligence Community  Agencies involved in the collection and analysis of information Congress Oversight  Hearings to monitor agency actions  “Fact-finding” missions abroad Treaties and Executive Agreements  Treaties require Senate approval but executive agreements do not. Appointments  Senate responsibility to prove advice, consent on appointing those involved in foreign and defense policy Appropriations  Can cut funds for military action The War Powers Resolution  President reports to Congress within 48 hours The Judiciary Chapter 18: Foreign and Defense Policy Limited Role  Tends to dismiss disputes over foreign policy as political in nature Civil War  Allowed Lincoln to deploy troops without Congressional declaration WWII  Upheld Japanese internment Guantanamo Bay  Mixed ruling Interest Groups (4) (1) Business Groups  Defense industries  Military-industrial complex (2) Ethnic Interest Groups  American-Israel Public Affairs Committee  Cuban-American National Foundation (3) Foreign Government and Companies  Acquiring foreign aid, preventing hostile bills (4) Ideological-Public Interest Groups  Think tanks, nongovernmental organizations  Brookings Institution, Heritage Foundation  Amnesty International, Greenpeace Contemporary Challenges in Foreign and Defense Policy Trade Making Trade Policy  Bilateral, regional and global free trade models o Protectionism: protecting our industry by increase tariff o Strategic Trade: helping others o Free Trade: no tariff  US uses ALL 3 The Case of China  Bilateral trade relationship has grown dramatically over past 3 decades o 3 issues of concern  Less of American jobs  Trade deficit  Safety of Chinese Imports Terrorism Making counterterrorism policy  Diplomacy  Military power  Economic power  Covert action Chapter 18: Foreign and Defense Policy The Case of al-Qaeda  Militant Islamic terrorism group founded in Pakistan in late 1980s  Headed by Osama bin Laden at time of Sep. 11, 2001 attacks  Now more decentralized Nuclear Weapons Making arms proliferation policy  Disarmament, arms control, denial, and counter-proliferation The Case of North Korea  Almost no direct diplomatic contacts between U.S. and North Korea  Various talks have started, but failed Toward Reform: New Challenges In American Foreign Policy  Trade, terrorism, and nuclear weapons  Economic growth and influence of China, India, Brazil and Russia o South Africa now included o “BRICS”  European debt troubles  American public opinion


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