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Bio1306 Week 11 Notes

by: Kimberly Rodriguez

Bio1306 Week 11 Notes Bio 1306

Kimberly Rodriguez
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover 4/25/2016 & 4/27/2016.
Organismal Biology
Class Notes
Biology, Organismal Biology, Life Science, Science, bio1306, Biology: Ecology and Evolution
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.

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Date Created: 05/02/16
Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe Week 11 Notes Continuing with Vertebrate Innovations 7) Amniotic Egg The amnion is fluid filled around the embryo.  Yolk sac: the yolk is supplied for nutrition to the embryo  Allantois: a second sac that collects digestive wastes prior to hatching  Chorion: membrane against the shell that is used for gas exchange and to store uric acid 8) Epidermal scales Waterproof dermis. Keratin accumulation evolved to scales to slow down water loss. 9) Endothermy Warm-blooded. Endothermic animals use heat produced by metabolic activities to regulate body temperature. Present in mammals and birds. In cool habitats they use insulation and in warm habitats they sweat. 10) Mammary Glands Evolved from sweat glands and are present in mammals for nutrition. Water balance/excretion The excretory organs in animals are involved in reabsorbing water or excreting excess water. Excretory organs Based on nephridia but in more complicated animals, the nephridia are compacted into kidneys that still work with filtration, selective reabsorption, and excretion. Environmental Circumstances External to the Body A) Freshwater Bony Blood and body fluids are hyperosmotic to a dilute Fish environment. Salt loss across gills and uptake of salt and chlorine ions. Water uptake across gills and dilute urine. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe Week 11 Notes B) Saltwater Bony Blood and body fluids are hyperosmotic to a saline Fish environment. They constantly drink sea water; they gain salt and excrete salt and chlorine ions. Water loss across gills and produce isotonic urine. C) Saltwater Cartilaginous Fish Blood and body fluids are slightly hypertonic to sea water. Gils are resistant to salt gain and are impermeable to urea. Kidneys reabsorb urea and excrete salt and chlorine ions. The accumulation of TMAO prevents urea from killing the fish. D) Saltwater Cartilaginous Fish Blood and body fluids have a high level of urea. When in Entering freshwater, the level of urea declines and the osmotic Freshwater relationships approach those of freshwater fish. Ammonia When proteins are used as food, the amine group is removed from the amino acid to process the molecule for energy forming ammonia. It can be poisonous which is why it needs to be removed from the body. -Bony Fish/Amphibians Ammonia diffuses across the gills. -Terrestrial Animals Two ways of disposing of ammonia: 1) Conversion of ammonia to urea 2) Conversion of ammonia to uric acid Urea Not as toxic as ammonia but in high levels it can kill. The synthesis is energetically inexpensive but it requires liquid water to excrete and so animals need water. TMAO reduces the effects of urea levels. Uric Acid Utilized by terrestrial arthropods and reptiles. Forms into a precipitate and is mixed with feces so it requires little water to be excreted. Salt Balance in Air Breathing Vertebrates Adaptations 1) Salt glands for excreting excess salt. 2) Long loops of henle in the kidneys to produce concentrated urine. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe Week 11 Notes Levels of Organization  Individuals: an individual animal, plant, or single- celled life form  Populations: aggregations of individuals in the same space and time  Species: populations that are genetically or evolutionarily cohesive  Communities: all the species of organisms that occur together in a specific place  Ecosystems: the community plus the abiotic (nonliving) factors in the environment in a certain place  Biosphere: all the ecosystems on Earth Earths Physical Determined by: energy input from the sun, topography, depths Environments of the oceans, the tilt of earth, and wind patterns that occur at different latitudes Climate Average state of atmospheric conditions; weather conditions over a long period of time Weather The state of the atmosphere at a place and time; short term Biomes Based on average annual temperature and average annual precipitation 1) Tundra 2) Boreal (coniferous) forest 3) Temperate seasonal (deciduous) forest 4) Temperate rain forest 5) Grassland 6) Desert 7) Tropical seasonal forest (tropical deciduous forest) 8) Tropical rain forest Edaphic conditions The composition and structure of the soil Less successful. Precipitation- there is always water present. Biome concept to aquatic systems There are no vegetation markers Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe Week 11 Notes Freshwater Biomes 1) Rivers and streams 2) Wetlands 3) Ponds and lakes Estuarine Biomes 1) Salt Marshes 2) Mangrove Forests Marine Biomes 1) Intertidal communities 2) Kelp forests 3) Seagrass beds 4) Coral reefs 5) Open ocean 6) Hydrothermal vents Alfred Wallace Suggested that the Earth was divided into different realms that each had their unique plant and animal species. His realms were: 1) Nearctic 2) Neotropical 3) Ethiopian 4) Palearctic 5) Oriental 6) Australasian Continental Drift Began to break up the supercontinent of Pangea into Laurasia and Gondwanaland. Gondwanaland then broke up into smaller pieces that are now South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica. The separation of these caused allopatric speciation events. Vicariance events Large scale speciation events involving thousands of species at one time by one geological or climatic mechanism


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