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LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey Week 15 Class Notes

by: Lauren Caldwell

LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey Week 15 Class Notes LIFE 103

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > LIFE 103 > LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey Week 15 Class Notes
Lauren Caldwell
GPA 3.8

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Includes reproduction, respiration, and survival
Macrobiology; Plants and Animals
Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Macrobiology; Plants and Animals in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
4/25 The Immune System  Innate immune system o First responders  Cellular innate defenses  Detects invades and alerts the first responders - TLR receptors - bind to alien molecules not found in animals  (ex: viruses, bacteria, fungi)  The reliable signals of an invasion Looking for: Double-stranded RNAs and DNA with unmethylated CG sequences Lipopolysaccharides Flagellin  Triggers phagocytosis  Adaptive immune system o Requires activation  Immune system goals o Prevent entry of pathogens o Detect entry of pathogens - (self versus non-self) o Eliminate pathogens  Types of cells that respond to pathogens o Neutrophiles - blood o Macrophages - through the entire body  BOTH of these are generally first to respond  BOTH will specifically attack and degrade invaders o Dendritic cells  Not as specific  Engulfs invaders then takes a piece of them and attaches it to its own body  Presents the little pieces on cell membranes to T cells, to which the T cells can adapt to better attack the invaders o Natural killer cells  Causes death/suicide of the cells that are SUPPOSED TO BE HERE and are infected  Triggers lysis or apoposits - natural death/rupturing of cell o Antimicrobial proteins  Helps kill invaders through interrupting replication or cell membranes o Inflammatory response  Injury or infection with an increase in heat - this is in order to kill the bad enzymes  Process  Mast cells release histamine - a signalling molecule  Histamine causes dilation/increase blood vessels  Leads to swelling in fluid in tissues  Recruits lymphocytes to come and join the attack as well as increase blood flow  Cytokines released by specialized cells promote blood flow - this is redness and heat  Pus is composed of phagocytic cells and debris Adaptive immune system  Specific to animals  One to one response between a particular invader and the body o Antigen  A toxin or other foreign substance that promotes the release of lymphocytes - either b or t cells o Lymphocytes B Cells T Cells Main job Detect antigens on cells or Specific binder protein circulating space through specific that binds to ONE type of binding antigen  Two parts Never interacts DIRECTLY o Heavy chain -> the with the antigen  Dendritic cells actual part that is imbedded in the migrate to the membrane of the B cell lympnodes (the T o Light chain -> is not cells) so they can experience what the imbedded, is shorter. invader is Binds to antigens On Proliferation - creates many Two types activatio copies of itself  Cytotoxic T cells - n Some of these proliferation attack own cells that products will produce antibodies are infected and (proteins that bind to antigen) cause them to die Memory B cells also produced  Memory T cells - ready to fight the next time the antigen is found o 4 characteristics  Diversity of lymphocytes and receptors  One to one ratio between reacting cells and the antigen  Ability to recognize and protect "self" cells  Called 'self-tolerance'  'self-reactive' combinations are destroyed  The cells are tested as they mature for reaction to self  Cell proliferation  Clonal selection  Interactions with antigens causes self reproduction  Immunological memory  This is the adaptive or acquired part  Is the result of memory cells  Ex: immunization against the chicken pox  Improper responses o Allergies o Autominnune diseases  Does not recognize self, kills own cells o Immunodeficiency - SCID, AIDS o Hygiene hypothesis  Lack of exposure to infections and parasites suppresses development of the immune system o Developed regions of the world have high rates of allergies and autoimmune disorders o Regions with common parasitic infections have low incidences of allergies/autoimmune disorders Innate immune system can be measured in terms of how it is being used by the body based on the count of white blood cells in the system Allergies - 'an inapprorpiate response by the immune system' Pathogen - anything that is potentially an invader (an umbrella term) Antigen - activates the adaptive immune system specifically Innate immune system Adaptive immune system All animals Vertebrates Rapid response Slower response Response to broad categories of Specific response to specific pathogen pathogens Same response with each infection Immunological memory 4/27 Loops of henle - critical for concentrating the urine Which of the animals would get dehydrated the quickest with no access to water? The beaver, as opposed to the kangaroo rat, because it needs a lot of water. Kangaroo rats only get their water from their food Hormones and Chemical signaling  Regulation of kidney function with anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) o Anti-diuretic - "avoiding the loss of excessive urine" (diuretic - loss of urine) o It functions to retina water in body tissues through increasing absorption of fluids in the collecting duct of the nephron o Hypothalamus detects increased osmolarity for blood o Pituitary gland secretes ADH  Recieves nerve inputs from hypothalamus  ADH receptors are in the kidney (travels through the bloodstream to get to the kidney)  Increases the permeability of water for kidneys  Osmoregulatiry of blood will DECREASE  This is an integration between the central nervous system and the endocrine system through chemical signaling  This is an example of a negative feedback mechanism  The stimulus here is the blood is too concentrated - the set of reactions lead to an increase of water concentration in the bloodstream  Chemical signals act on distant tissues, the collecting duct and distal tubule  The result of all of this is maintaining homeostasis  Modes of intercellular chemical signaling o Type of secreting cell + route of signal  Five ways Endocrine Paracrine Autocrine Synaptic Neuroendocrin signaling signaling signaling signaling e signaling Is it YES No No No YES strictly hormone signaling ? What Cells + cells cells neurons neurons + does it bloodstream bloodstream involve? Local v global local local local global global? What Secreted The cell The cell is Creates Nerve cell does it stuff is put excretes excreting action puts stuff into impact? into the stuff that soemthing potential blood stream blood will that will Between which ends up stream to impact return to a nerve impacting get to nearby ITSELF cell and normal cells tissues cells normal cells  The endocrine system o Endocrinology  The study of the endocrine system o Endocrine - ductless glands that secrete into the blood  The glands that create things that are just kinda wandering throughout the body o Exocrine - ducted glands that carry secretions directly onto surfaces or into body cavities  The glands that create saliva, sweat, earwax, digestive enzymes  Both function to maintain homeostasis  Both function to regulate growth and development  Both function to control sexual reproduction o Target cells have hormone-specific receptors  Hormones are chemicals secreted into the bloodstream and impact particular cells  Often regulate cell reactions by changing gene expression o Low concentration = high impacty  Signal transduction  Transmission of molecular signals from exterior to interior cell  Moeclule binds at cell membrane OR pass through membrane and bind to receptors in the cell  Aka either binds to inside or outside of cell. Depends on the type of molecule o Amplification  Literally just a series of amplification - one hormone binding in one place can trigger a massive output of other hormones  Pheromones o Inter-individual and species communication  Coordination and communication with different organisms  So yes, they are molecules that have similar properties to hormones  The primary difference is the use between organisms  Water soluble hormones o Epinephrine  Adrenaline  Secretes stuff into yoru blood when you're scared  Promotes the synthesis of another thing that can break down glycogen (stored energy) o canNOT pass through the membrane  Requires receptor proteins on the cell surface  Lipid soluble hormones o Estradiol  Impacts gene expression o CAN pass through the membrane  Receptor proteins can be inside of a cell  Multiple impacts of hormones o Target receptors can be found in many tissues o Specific response to hormone binding can vary with tissue type  Can have different receptors OR same receptors, but carry different outcomes, based on the cells impacted Hormones HAVE to travel through the bloodstream Semelparous -> dies after it produces offspring 4/28 Offspring  Reproduction o Asexual or sexual o Asexual  Offspring are a genetic copy  No fusion of gametes  Primary form of reproduction in Archaea, Bacteria, and protists  Forms of asexual repro  Binary fission - parent divides into two equal pieces  Budding - new individual comes from an outgrowth or bud from the mature organism  Fragmentation - creature cut in two can develop into two full-fledged organisms  Parthenogenesis - new individual comes from an unfertilized eggs of the parent  This is the most like sexual repro -> a gamete/egg is produced, but no fertilization is required. It is still a clone Pros Cons Offspring are identical to Offspring are restricted to parents being similar to parents Only one sex - every individual can reproduce o Sexual  Fusion of gametes - sperm and egg - to create a zygote  Gametes develop from meiosis where the ploidy is N as opposed to 2N  Primary form of repro for animals and plants Pros Cons Genetic Requires two sexes variation Has to find a mate Mating can be dangerous  Reasons for sexual repro  Recombination  Combines good mutations  Avoid bad mutations  Red Queen Hypothesis  Reduces the weakness to parasites, diseases, or predators, a co-evolutionary 'arms race'  Remove bad mutations from a lineage  Sexual repro is favored thanks to the fact that environments change o IF 'death is random' and everything is equal, asexual is strongest tool o If death is not random - predication, disease, etc - sexual is best o Homrones contribute to actions in looking a mate o Pheromones, which again impact other organisms, communicates sexual ability and convey indiviual information  Also used in social control to repress the 'not as important' creatures in the pack/clan to keep from them breeding  Challenges of reproduction o Generating gametes  Eggs - smaller number produced, higher investment (more energy needed to make it)  Sperm - larger number produced, lower investment (much less energy required)  This is called anisogamy o Finding a mate  Provide an example of a sessile creatures adaptation to mate  Hermaphrodism o Fertilization  Synchronous external fertilization is spawning  Asynchronous external fertilization requires coordination between individuals  BOTH require water o Support during development  Pre-hatching or birth  Care for eggs  Post-hatching or birth  Nursing, provide food/protection Females need to be choosey because its more expensive for them. They can 'cheat' in that they can ensure the successful mate they have is with the best male Changing sex in fish  Protandrous - male first, female second  Larger body mass = produces more eggs  Large females have higher reproductive success  Largest fish in the anemone will turn female in order to make the most eggs  Protogynous - female first, male second


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