Intro to Philosophy Greek Foundations Notes Week Thirteen
Intro to Philosophy Greek Foundations Notes Week Thirteen Philosophy 10200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Gendron on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 10200 at Ithaca College taught by Prof. Robert Klee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy Greek Foundations in PHIL-Philosophy at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Intro to Philosophy Greek Foundations Notes Week 13 Athenians considered Macedonians to be “hicks” and uncivilized, they thought they had unbecoming accents Plato failed all three times that he tried to institute is perfect state as described in The Republic Aristotle was said to have worn vain, ostentatious clothing and jewelry and to have spoken with a fake lisp to make him seem more ‘profound’ He is described as having small eyes, and several accounts say that he had very ‘slender calves’ He was married and had a child with his wife who then later passed away. Aristotle later had what is today known as a common law union with a woman he lived with for many years, but never officially married. He also had a child with this woman. His many accomplishments include: o He was the founder of observational biology o Invented the discipline of formal ‘logic’ from nothing o 1 thinker in the West to come up with a general theory of what science is o Established a theory on the mind/soul o Wrote the first treatise on Metaphysics o Wrote Ethical treatises- how one should live and why o Founded the Lyceum, which led to the first treatise on Political Science st o 1 treatise in literary criticism Posterior Analytics come after “Prior Analytics” in which Aristotle codified logic o All As are Bs o All Bs are Cs o Therefore all As are Cs All As are Bs No As are Bs Some As are Bs Some As are not Bs He was the first to understand if an argument is valid vs. invalid Argues that genuine scientific knowledge is demonstrative in nature o A grievous mistake, that to explain something scientifically is to be able to give a logical derivation of some kind You cannot have knowledge of something that is accidental No possible way to explain scientifically what is random rather than guaranteed to occur Physics (from Physis) Fixed into the cosmos Enormously influential – Physics of the Middle Ages He distinguishes natural things from non-natural o Natural: Animals and animal parts, fire, air and water, plants, and natural bodies o Natural and unnatural things differ due to causes o Natural objects vs. artifacts o An artificial artifact like a bed or clothing cannot move itself or in any way change through growth or decay without an external source’s force coming into play If something has a principle of growth or decay it has a nature Aristotle: “All things in nature are also substances” Ousia= being, reality, essence (not necessarily substance) Ancient Greek philosophers are distrustful of surface appearances o This is because of the notion that there are underlying natures to things Theory of the 4 kinds of causes o Not the modern “bringing about” sense of cause, and this is only one of the four causes: o 1.) Material o 2.) Formal o 3.) Efficient o 4.) Final The Four Causes correspond roughly to: o 1.) Matter of which the thing is composed o 2.) The idea or essence the thing is an instance of o 3.) The process which brought about the thing o 4.) The purpose for which the thing was brought about
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