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3/17 and 3/19 notes

by: Alec Greenspoon

3/17 and 3/19 notes KIN 421

Marketplace > University of Miami > Physics 2 > KIN 421 > 3 17 and 3 19 notes
Alec Greenspoon
GPA 3.65
advanced systemic physiology
Dr. Perry

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all notes from class
advanced systemic physiology
Dr. Perry
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alec Greenspoon on Friday March 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 421 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Perry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see advanced systemic physiology in Physics 2 at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 03/20/15
Exam 2 03172015 31715 Energy systems part I Fate of lactic acid 0 Can be taken up to reform muscle glycogen primarily FT Goes opposite way of Glycolysis Glucose restored as glycogen Muscle and heart have different isozymes 0 Slow twitch has more of the isozymes seen in heart 0 LDHH4 and H2M1 Fast twitch has more LDHM4 CHF patients have greater rates of PCr depletion and greater muscle acidosis 0 Associated with increased fatigue beyond heart problems Peripheral central from heart condition 0 Factors affecting lactate accumulation see slide 0 As exercise continues lactic acid is taken up more and oxidized back to pyruvate o Skeletal muscle is greatest source of lactic acid production and uptake LA is not a dead end metabolite Monocarboxylate transporters MCT 18 0 MCT 1 and 4 Cotransports La and H ions Corresponds to greater oxidative disposal of LA 0 Slow twitch bers are more resistant to fatigue because there is more speed in the activity of lactate and H ions 0 Heart is great at taking up LA and oxidizing it o MCT 4 in fast twitch are good at extruding LA from gycoytic bers MCT 1 are the fastest As we look at lactic acid production there is a point with nonlinear increase production outpaces removal 0 This point is the lactate threshold 0 Does not mean there is more lactate in the blood a lot of lactate Usually 4mmolL 0 Training above lactate threshold could speed up MCT transport activity Why do some people have reduced rate of anaerobic Glycolysis with anaerobic trainingproduce less lactic acid endurance trained athletes 0 Better at oxidizing fats don t have to undergo anaerobic gycoytic cycle Same type of muscle is producing and taking up LA there is no net lactate production 0 Taken up by red muscle better at oxidizing LA produced by both red and white 0 As exercise continues there is net lactic acid uptake Canyou train at lactate threshold and not increase V02 max Yes 0 Can improve lacate threshold speed of MCT transporters but not V02 max lmproves performance lnterval training is best for improving lactate threshold 0 Pushing threshold back better performance indpendent of changes in V02 max O 0 Positive view of LA 0 Glucose paradox pathway Liver makes glycogen indirectly from lactic acid instead of using glucose n Unusual pathway n Gluconeogenesis Energy systems part II Fates of pyruvate see slide 0 0 What else happens to pyruvate Can combine with other AAs glutamine forming alanine and alphaketoglutarate Sulfur bond high energy linkage o Pyruvate dehydrogenase O O O O 0 E1 removes C02 E2 transfers pyruvate to acetyl CoA E3 Hydrogen removed from complex and reduces NAD B form is inactive Phosphorylated A form is active Favors oxidation to acetyl CoA Phosphatase removes a P Calcium CoA and NAD favor oxidation F o All activities of PDH kinase require Mg Kreb s Cycle see slide 0 Acetyl group is not oxidized directly 0 Acetyl group from pyruvate is transferred to Coenzyme A with high energy linkage to from acetyl CoA 0 Key points 0 Aerobic exercise produces C02 Kreb s Cycle 0 Citrate synthase is rst ratelimiting enzyme 0 lsocitrate dehydrogenase is second ratelimiting enzyme similar to PFK First decarboxylation step loose C02 First oxredox rxn Down to 5 Cs 0 Succinate dehydrogenase used to stain for slow twitch red bers 3rCI rate limiting enzyme no decarboxylation o In CHF patients there is reduced Kreb s cycle enzymes 0 Correlate with changes in LV function 31915 Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase causes formation of acetyl CoA from pyruvate Pyruvate oxidized in mitochondria and becomes acetyl CoA and then citrate Each pyruvate 2 turns of Kreb s cycle Electron transport chain see stair step slide 0 O O O O Electrons are donated to a set of carriers Energy is given off ADP ATP Oxidative phosphorylation Recycles NAD FADH to Kreb s cycle NAD CleO decreases free radicals used to provide energy for continued exercise Continues until electrons are donated to oxygen Last step phosphorylates ADP ATP 3 moles of ATP generated from top 2 from FADH2 energy released drives H across the membrane thus creating a gradient ATP synthase acts as a pore This energy gradient is used to drive rephosphorylation of ATP Each pyruvate O 0 Reduction of NAD to NADH Conversion to Acetyl CoA Energy 0 O Pyruvate 2 NADH 6 ATP Citric acid cycle 24 ATP 0 30 ATP1 mole of glucose 0 Glycolysis 10 ATP 1 or 2 ATP depends on source of glucose muscle or blood stream Total 38 or 39 ATPglucose Taking glucose from blood requires an extra ATP At the beginning of exercise more inclined for glucose from bloodstream or muscle a Body always prefers from muscle 1 n Running down glycogen stores requires more glucose from blood stream 2 o Fats can be broken down into acetyl group and enter Krebs Energy systems 0 ATPPC produces the most power fastest least moles of energy overall 0 Aerobic produces the least power many steps but most moles of energy overall 755 is crossover point from anaerobic to aerobic energy production in athletes avg person probably 1205 Understand graphscharts 0 Sprint trained athletes get more energy from PCr system and anaerobic Glycolysis o Endurance trained athletes produce more energy once aerobic system kicks in HEP high energy phosphagens o ATPPCr system PCr depleted much faster Faster sprinters have greater enzymatic activity 0 Muscular energy using this system is 100 fold greater than RMR 0 Can go up to 5 or 6 x greater than V02 max but only for short period unsustainable Onset of exercise 0 Oxygen de cit o Steady state 0 Oxygen debt Excess Post Oxygen Consumption EPOC Used to produce ATP Faster twin higher phosphagen depletion a Large aactacid debt greater phosphagen depletion n Lactic acid in the muscle that does not diffuse out is converted back into glycogen fast twitch bers mainly o Lactic acid accumulation MCT 4 in fast twitch bers n Goes to o 1 adjacent muscle bers white 0 2 bloodstream and taken up by liver via cori cycle 0 3 heart 0 4 oxidized by red bers Exercise increases circulation faster turnover of lactic acid also increases size and number of mitochondria mitochondrial enzymes 0 EPOC is larger than 02 de cit 0 Type 2 bers are more sensitive to changes in pH 0 Type 1 more sensitive to changes in calcium 0 lnterval training 0 Best way to train Phosphagensl 0305 LA system 3052 or 3 mins 0 Know relief intervals and how they correspond to each segment trained phosphagens lactic acid system aerobic 131211


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