Intro to Sociology: Politics and Society Part I & II
Intro to Sociology: Politics and Society Part I & II Introduction to Sociology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Chang on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Introduction to Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Jeremiah Bohr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Social Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
1 Introduction to Sociology SOC 101 (Section 002C) *** Notes from class lectures Politics and Society, Part I Politics o Who gets What, When, and How (Harold Lasswell) Struggles over finite/limited resources o Formal politics Elections, citizenry Power, Governance, and the State o Informal politics Power outside of the state Examples The “court of public opinion” Social movements (protests, boycotts, e.g.) (Consequential) corporate decision-making “Office politics” Authority o The legitimate use of power Recognized as just by the people Types of Authority o Traditional Legitimacy via custom Ex. The Pope o Legal-rational Legitimacy via rules Ex. President o Charismatic Legitimacy via personality Ex. Radio hosts Authority and the State o The State Mostly relies upon legal-rational authority State authority enforced by threat of physical coercion o Paradox of authority Resorting to physical coercion strips the state of legitimate authority Power o Power The ability to exercise control over others, even against their will (Max Weber) 2 o Domination The probability that a command will be obeyed o Hard power Power via threat of coercion o Soft power Power via cultural attractiveness Law o Rules of behavior defined by political authority and backed by state power o Functionalists Laws are based on collective conscience, reflect shared values of a social group (Durkheim) o Conflict theorists Laws reflect the ideological goals of the ruling class (Marx) o Interactionists Laws are symbols that regulate relationships beyond social differences Nation, Government, and State o What is a nation? A social and cultural relationship continuous over time, contained within geographic boundaries o What is a government? Provision of specific public services that provide order within a society o What is a state? Total apparatus that monopolizes government services within a territory Modern States o Defines a national territory o Sovereignty o Developed bureaucracy Nationalism VS. Patriotism o Nationalism Nation as site of ultimate loyalty Advocate interests of own nation, excludes interests of other nations o Patriotism Refers more generally to love of country o All of this affects… Our discourse – the way we talk (and thus think) Social movements – activists often frame their goals in terms of national interests 3 Emotional sentiments Politics and Society, Part II Types of Power Systems o Anarchy Absence of an organized state o Monarchy Single ruler; hereditary o Dictatorship Single ruler; not hereditary o Oligarchy Rule by a small, elite group o Democracy Power, distributed equally among citizens Elected government Citizenship o Collection of rights Evolve over time Emerge out of conflict o Relationship between the individual and state o Does not apply equally to all people Possibility of “stateless” individuals/groups Types of Citizen Rights o Civil Rights of individual freedom (speech, e.g.) o Political Right to participate in political power o Social Right to a minimal standard of living Social Welfare o Life can be “poor, nasty, brutish and short.” – Thomas Hobbes o Social welfare The ability to take care of basic needs for others in your group/community o For most of human history, welfare came from… Family Neighbors/community Religious organizations The “Welfare State” o Describes state responsibility for the welfare of its citizens Meets basic needs for 4 Education Housing Health Income o Defines the nature of State/Economy relationship Three Types of Welfare States o 1) Social democratic o 2) Liberal o 3) Conservative Social Democratic Model o Characteristics Universal program eligibility De-commodification (non-market service) Wealth redistribution emphasized Labor participation of women encouraged o Lower tolerance for poverty o Examples Denmark, Norway, Sweden Liberal Model o Characteristics Means-tested programs (0nly some citizens qualify) Commodification (relies more on markets) Wealth redistribution de-emphasized Labor participation of women encouraged o Higher tolerance for poverty o Examples U.S., Canada, Australia Conservative Model o Characteristics Programs work through occupations/employers Moderate levels of de-commodification Income redistribution is minimal Labor participation of women discouraged o Preservation of traditional family structures emphasized o Examples France, Italy Major US Welfare Programs o Social Security Before SS, seniors most vulnerable age group to poverty Today, seniors least vulnerable age group to poverty o Medicare and Medicaid o Federal education funding o Various anti-poverty programs Tax Systems 5 o Progressive Individuals with higher incomes pay greater share of tax burden o Regressive Individuals with lower incomes pay greater share of tax burden Taxes and Welfare o In general… Countries with regressive tax systems have stronger welfare states Countries with progressive tax systems have weaker welfare states
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