HIST173_Ch 2 HIST173
Long Beach State
Popular in U.S. History 1865-Present
Popular in History
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Doris M on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST173 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Sheridan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see U.S. History 1865-Present in History at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
The American West 1850-‐1890 Map of the US -‐Oregon territory, Mississippi territory, Utah territory, and states -‐unorganized territory: the middle of the US The West conflict and removal -‐transformation -‐the Native Americans moved around and even tually forced out in concentrated areas inhabitants and culture; Native Am -‐some Nat. Am. Don’t use war paint and they were depicted a certain way because of Americans -‐some tribes were nomadic, moved around, others stayed in place -‐some are peaceful and were never aggressive, some were war like -‐variety of living -‐their lives were different from Euro -‐Am culture -‐most of the tribal groups were small and were mostly lived in kinships -‐the avg tribe had about 300-‐500 ppl -‐the well being of the entire community outweighed the needs of the individual -‐live communal lives, and economically there wrnt large economic gaps -‐they promoted communal decision making, a council to make decisions, tribal councils -‐had a reverence for nature, and the natural world -‐the natural world ordered their lives Ex. The flow of the seasons affected their life ways -‐diversity in land, and culture -‐not all americans existed in the exact same way, lived in different areas -‐different environments, different challeng es -‐US's interest and issues -‐US were content to letting the Nat Am do what they want and roam on the West -‐Nat Am living on the east were moved to the west -‐after the gold rush in 1849, ppl wanted settle and make money -‐the west became a place where ppl wanted to stay, ppl became interested in the west -‐the US gov made laws regarding the West -‐policy of concentration, 1851 -‐policy made by the Us -‐pushed forwards b officials -‐a series of policies similar to treaties -‐it limited the boundaries where the Nat Am can live, hunt, and where they can roam about -‐the idea of concentrating the Nat Am started to come about -‐Sioux, crows, Cheyenne -‐Sioux -‐limited to the Dakotas -‐crows -‐limited in the Montana -‐Cheyenne -‐the rocky mountains -‐taught how to farm like white Am. -‐changed the Am experience for the Nat Am -‐the US claimed the treaties were inviolate (can not be changed, to be forever) -‐larger significance and analysis -‐changed 1000s of years of hunting, traditions and living patte rns -‐set up future conflict and later a full scale war btwn Nat tribal groups and white Am -‐set up the precedent to limiting Nat Am to smaller areas -‐war, conflict removal and change of life cycles, patterns of migration, buffalo -‐4 decades of war and conflict -‐conflicts undermined the existing cultures of the Nat. Ams in the west -‐more Am were killed in the wars than did the Nat. Am -‐white Am. Brought diseases with them -‐ex. measles, smallpox -‐their way of life changes -‐the Nat Am had access to alcohol brought by white traders and introduced into their culture -‐alcoholism -‐railroads: laid down on western landscapes -‐creation of railroads had effects on Nat Am. Migrations -‐buffalos were effected -‐the whole industry of killing buffalos (the b uchary of the bison) -‐the butchery of the bison also affect the Nat. Am -‐the majority of buffalo had disappeared from the plains within 15 years SIOUX: test-‐case -‐the signed a treaty the treaty of ft laramie -‐pushed to the Dakotas -‐one are of the dakotas known as the Black hills -‐treaty of Ft. Laramie, 1868 Colonel George Armstrong Custer -‐leads Am troops into the Paha Saha and they put pressure on the Nat Am -‐Am forced the Nat Am hands, bu the Nat Am didn’t agree Paha Saha, Black Hills -‐one of the more sacred lands that the Sioux had access to -‐the Am settlers had no rights in the Black Hills -‐in 1870, the Am gov spread a false rumor that there were gold deposits there in the black hills -‐a rush of settlers wanted to go to the black hil ls and leads to a conflict Battle of Little Big Horn, present day Montana, June 1876 -‐lead by Colonel Custer -‐Custer arrives at Little Big Horn and thought it was going to be a small group but when he comes around the corner of the mountain, there wer e 12,000 Sioux and Cheyenne, that their camp extended 3 miles -‐The US had 600 soldiers Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull -‐Sioux leaders -‐Crazy Horse was a leader and he made it his wish to kil the commander and kills Custer -‐250 Am soldiers were killed -‐victory for the Nat. Am. Sitting Bull-‐another leader, older, reflective, medicine man -‐US military had to regroup -‐after the war, the unity of the Nat. Am broke -‐the Sioux had to split in different bands -‐Sitting bull almost gets captured but escapes i n Canada -‐crazy horse and his men are surrounded and surrenders NEZ PERCE: to the West -‐Am North west Nat Am Chief Joseph -‐leader of the NEZ PERCE US army in chase of the tribe to Bear Paw Mountain; removal to Oklahoma -‐pursued by the US -‐75 straight days -‐traveled 13,000 miles as a tribe of 600 ppl -‐fought off the army at times, fought back, gained distance, as they are a few miles to the Canadian border, they are captured and forced to surrender -‐chief Joseph "Here me my chiefs, I am tire d, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever" -‐captured and shipped to Oklahoma -‐some didn’t make it to Oklahoma 1871: change in US policy -‐political sovereignty(control of their own land) whittled away -‐in 1871, the congress changed their policy and said they would no longer make treaties with the Nat Am. -‐by 1872, congress abandoned making treaties with the Nat Am. -‐after 1871, there were no Nat. Am… because the US wouldn’t make treaties with them 1887: Dawes Severalty Act, long term significance -‐an act passed by congress -‐attempted to end the policies of concentration -‐policies of concentration had been around for about 30yrs -‐the act basically distributed land to the Nat. Am -‐an attempt to give nat Am to live there permanently -‐in order to get the land, they had to sever their own attachment to their tribe -‐the goal was to bring Nat Am to structures of living similar to White Am. -‐pushed them to be farmers, property owners -‐Am was trying to bring the Nat Am lands to be used by White Am -‐undermined the Indian tribal life because it tried to get them to be farmers like Euro Am. -‐Nat. Am didn’t know how to irrigate, or how to be property owners -‐the Us tried to take more and more of the Nat. Am lands -‐ex. Nat Am had access to 155 million acres of land, 20 years later, 1900, they had 78 million acres Wounded Knee, 1890 -‐Nat Am lands had been reduced -‐S. Dakota -‐there had been a series of revivals of Nat. Am groups, and felt like somethi ng was going to happen -‐Nat Am felt like their 20 yrs f suffering was going to end -‐the did a ghost dance that they believed if they did, their ancestors would come back to life -‐they believed if they did the dance enough, they believed it would create enough spiritual activity and the White Am. Would leave -‐it was a last desperation -‐the US officials see all the dancing and they worried and thought it could be a revolt -‐the US got on edge and there was a dramatic shoot out at the place called Wounded Knee -‐The Us am. open fired on Nat. Am., shot at with a machine gun which was a new gun at that time -‐Nat Am decided not to fight back and just decided to live on their small areas Final straw' question of assimilation The West part 2 Those who came west? Why? Who were they? What did they have in common? -‐1870s-‐new settlement and migration opened up -‐lot of them were farmers from east coast and Midwest -‐freed slaves, or newly freed from the south -‐new poor immigrants from E. Europe -‐stayed in NY for a while but ended up moving -‐they were looking for land, ownership of land -‐they were also looking for economic opportunities -‐they were drawn to Am because of Ads -‐the railroad had just been laid and so there was a way for ppl to get out to the west -‐"land rushes" took place through the 1870s and 1880s Boomers and Sooners -‐land rushes where there was a certain amount of land where a person could claim their land -‐in 1889, 100,000 ppl made their way to Oklahoma City -‐land boomers-‐those who wanted the farm -‐they shot off a cannon that claimed that the and was open and ppl tried to gain land -‐opened up 2 million acres to the ppl -‐some ppl cheated-‐the Sooners -‐the sooners had snuck away from Oklahoma city and they had already claimed the land -‐the last great land rush William F. Cody, "Buffalo Bill" -‐ppl wanted to make the west romantic -‐buffalo bill made the west seem like the west was a beautiful place -‐he had fought off various ppl already living out there -‐he fought off Nat Am -‐he saved women in distress -‐Buffalo bill didn’t do any of those things but he was brave and charismatic -‐he brought order to the west Edward Judson, novelist -‐wrote about Buffalo Bill and made him seem larger than life -‐made him seen as the most important person in the west -‐makes Buffalo bill an icon -‐trope-‐ideas that become facts, Edward made ppl believe his ideas from his books -‐the west is this mythical place of opportunity -‐in the west, good trumps evil, good always win -‐good guys were Am settlers -‐a place of adventure -‐a place where all Indians hunted Bison -‐romance adventure, excitement -‐the reality was that in the Am West, it was a place of conquest largely by Euro culture -‐a place of unchecked exploitation -‐the complexity was much more real -‐the west wasn’t tamed -‐conquest and exploitation Myths and romantic association; larger truths "Wild West and Rocky Mountain and Prairie Exhibition Show", entertainment' larger symbolism -‐a show created by Buffalo Bill and becam e the most popular form of entertainment in the US -‐where /Buffalo traded and where he was good with his gun -‐ppl would come for miles to see the show -‐it was such a popular show and went on tour thru out the world -‐they made so much money on the east coast and around the world -‐the show becomes a world wide phenomenon -‐it talked and created a culture for the ppl on the prairie -‐presentations, stories, a form of commercial, commodity -‐something that can be taken in by white settlers on the plain -‐at the end of the show they would re enact Custer's last stand -‐Sitting Bull -‐ Sioux leader was hired for the show
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