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Introduction to Psychology Week 12 Notes

by: AHegerman

Introduction to Psychology Week 12 Notes Psych 111

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This covers Dr. Virginia Clinton's Week 12 Introduction to Psychology Notes
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
04/04 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Last Class: - Germinal, embryonic and fetal stages - Teratogens - Sensory development - Habituation and Violation of expectations (Violation is the opposite of Habituation) - 5 S’s Infancy and Childhood: Module 15 Infancy: newborns growing almost into toddler (3 months - 2 years) Childhood: toddlers growing almost into teenagers (2 - 12 years) Motor Skill Development: Gross motor skills: - Large Muscles: Back, Legs, Arms - Learning to walk, running, sitting in a chair, riding a bike, other non developmentally related skills (walking on knees) - There is a lot of variation with this development - Learning to stand before you crawl, or not learning to crawl at all (because of hardwood floors) Fine motor skills: - Small Muscles: Hands, Fingers - Picking up food, holding a pencil, coloring - Clear progression - Scribbles, Single Units, Differentiated, Integrated Whole Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget (1896-1980) - We don’t start out being able to think like adults. - Jean Piaget studied the errors in cognition made by children in order to understand in what ways they think differently than adults. Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Preoperational (2-6 years) Concrete Operational (7-12 years) Formal Operational (12 - adult) Schemas: - An infant’s mind works hard to make sense of our experiences in the world. - An early tool to organize those experiences is a schema, a mental container we build to hold our experiences. - Schemas can take the form of images, models, and/or concepts. A) Babies develop a schema that objects act a certain way when banged B) New objects that behave as expected are assimilated in that schema C) A new object that doesn’t fit into that schema is accommodated by making a new schema Assimilation and Accommodation: - How can this girl use her “dog” schema when encountering a cat? - She can assimilate and call it “dog”. - She can accommodate and make a new schema for the cat. Object Permanence Attempting to Search for a Hidden Object - 8 months old (maybe younger) Preoperational (2-6 years) Preoperational Stage - Conservation refers to the ability to understand that a quantity in conserved (does not change) even when it is arranged in a different shape. Egocentrism for Preoperational Children - Child thinks, “everyone sees the world the same way I do” Theory of Mind: - Theory of mind refers to the ability to understand that others have their own thoughts and perspective. Maturing beyond Egocentrism: Developing a “Theory of Mind” - WIth theory of mind you can picture that Sally will look for the ball in the red cupboard because that is where she put it. 04/06 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Module 15 cont. Concrete Operational (7-12 years) - Conservation is understood - Mathematical operations are understood - Mathematical transformations are understood (7+3=10 and 3+7=10 and if 3+7=10 then 10-7=3) Limitation with Concrete Operations - Cognitive error: logical only for concrete events - Hypothetical understanding is limited Formal Operational (12 years-adult) - Concrete Operations include analogies such as “My brain is like a computer” (includes arithmetic transformations ie. 3+7=10 and 10-7=3) - Formal Operations include allegorical thinking such as “People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones” (includes algebra ie. if x=3y and x-2y=4, what is x?) Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development (table in the textbook) Lev Vygotsky: Alternative to Jean Piaget - Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) studies kids too, but focused on how they learn in the context of social communication - Vygotsky saw development as building on a scaffold of mentoring, language, and cognitive support from parents and others. Attachment ​refers to an emotional tie to another person. - In children, attachment can appear as a desire for physical closeness to caregiver - Origins of Attachment: Experiments with monkeys suggest that the attachment is based on physical affection and comfortable body contact, and not based on being rewarded with food. - Harlow tested with monkeys based on if the monkey is attached to a mother that gives food but not comfort versus a mother who gives comfort but not food. Parenting Styles **See slides for diagram** Authoritarian Parenting Characteristics: - High levels of demand and control - Low levels of warmth and communication Child Consequences: - Good school performance - Lower self-esteem and fewer peer interaction skills - Some subdued; others highly aggressive Permissive Parenting Characteristics: - High in warmth and communication - Low in demand and control Child Consequences: - Poor adolescent school performance - More aggressive and immature - Less responsible and independent Uninvolved Parenting Characteristics - Low in levels of demand and control - Low in levels of warmth and communication Child Consequences - Disturbances in social relationships - More impulsive and antisocial in adolescence - Less competitive with peers - Much less achievement-oriented in school Authoritative Parenting Characteristics: - High in warmth and communication - High in demand and control Child Consequences: - Higher self-esteem, independence, and altruism - More parental compliance - Self-confident and achievement oriented - Better school performance 04/07 (lab) 9-9:50 am Nature Vs. Nurture - Nature is our biological predispositions that influence behavior - Nurture is our collective experiences that influence behavior Sources of Nurture: - Parents - Yes your parents do influence you - Different types of parenting has a strong impact on development - Authoritarian - Authoritative - Peer influences - Need to belong - Selection effect: “your peers influence you” has to be dynamically evaluated because you choose your friends - Cultural influences - Culture - Language has been one of the most significant adaptations, with the ability to preserve innovations - Each culture has accepted norms which members follow - Norms are rules for acceptable and unacceptable behavior Parents Vs. Peers Battling over non-genetic influence Parents have more influence on: - Education and career path - Cooperation - Self-discipline - Responsibility - Charitableness - Religion - Style of interaction with authority figure Peers have more influence on: - Learning cooperation skills - Learning the path to popularity - Choice of music and other recreation - Choice of closing and other cultural choices - Good and bad habits Culture Influences on Development Culture and the self: individualism and collectivism Individualism: - Independent - Discover and express one’s uniqueness - Me - personal achievement and fulfillment; rights and liberties; self-esteem - Change reality - Defined by individuals - Many, often temporary or casual; confrontation acceptable - Behavior reflects one's personality and attitudes Collectivism: - Interdependent - Maintain connections, fit in, perform - ... Gender and Sex - You’re born into the world biologically male or female (sex) - Identify as masculine or feminine (gender) - Acceptance Differences: Males and females are more alike than different: Gender similarities hypothesis - Men have higher self-esteem scores than women Gender development Nature: - XX or XY plus sex hormones in the womb affect biological development Nurture: - Gender roles are the behaviors a culture expects of its men and women - Social learning theory: gender is learned through imitation in combination with rewards or punishments The Biology of Gender What biologically makes us male or female? - XX (female) or XY (male) - Sex organs - Hormones Brain Differences: - During the fourth and fifth month of pregnancy, sex hormones bathe the fetal brain - Frontal lobe difference - There are also differences in the amygdala Gender and Social Connection - Men are more physically aggressive and women are more relationally aggressive - Men admit to more aggression than women - Both men and women turn to a women when they need someone to talk to - In general women change roommates more often - Women are more commonly religious Gender and Social Power - Men = dominant, forceful, and independent - More likely to utter opinions in group interactions - As leaders, tend to be directive and autocratic - Women = deferential, nurturing...


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