Introduction to Psychology week 14 Notes
Introduction to Psychology week 14 Notes Psych 111
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
04/18 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Module 50: Anxiety Disorders, cont. Understanding Anxiety Disorders: - Classical Conditioning: overgeneralizing a conditioned response - Operant Conditioning: rewarding avoidance - Observational Learning: worrying like mom - Cognitive Appraisals: uncertainty is danger - Biological: it’s in the genes Anxiety and Classical Conditioning Explosion (US) → Fear (UR) Mild Crash (CS) → Re Experiencing the Fear Response (CR) Anxiety and Operant Conditioning - Anxiety prompts unhealthy behaviors - Behaviors may prompt feeling better - These behaviors get reinforced Observational Learning - Learn by watching how others behave - Seeing other people being fearful can prompt that fear in yourself Cognition and Anxiety - Cognition includes worried thoughts, as well as interpretations, appraisals, beliefs, predictions, and ruminations - Hypervigilance - Fear of fear Panic Attack → increased physical arousal and worry about another attack → vigilance of body symptoms → catastrophic misinterpretation of physical sensations (continues in a circle) Biology and Anxiety Genes: - Identical twins and phobias - Temperament - Serotonin - Glutamate Brain: - Trauma and Amygdala - Overarousal in areas with impulse control and habitual behaviors Module 51: Mood Disorders Mood Disorders: - Syndromes in which a disturbance in mood is the predominant feature - Major depressive disorder [MDD] (abnormally low mood) - Bipolar disorder (shifts between abnormally low mood and abnormally high mood) - Major Depressive Disorder [MDD] is: - More than just feeling “down” - More than just feeling sad about something - Bipolar disorder is: - More than “mood swings” - Depression plus the problematic overly “up” mood called “mania” Criteria of Major Depressive Disorders: Major depressive disorder is not just one of these symptoms. It is one or both of the first two, PLUS three or more of the rest. 1. Depressed Mood Most of the Day, and/or 2. Markedly Diminished Interest or Pleasure in Activities 3. Significant increase or decrease in appetite or weight 4. Insomnia, sleeping too much, or disrupted sleep 5. Legarthy, or physical agitation 6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day 7. Worthlessness, or excessive/inappropriate guilt 8. Daily problems in thinking, concentrating, and/or making decisions 9. Recurring thoughts of death or suicide Prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder - Most common psychological disorder worldwide - Often called “the common cold” of psychological disorders - But is this a good comparison? Bipolar Disorder - Bipolar disorder was once called “manic-depressive disorder” - Bipolar disorders two polar opposite moods are depression and mania - Mania refers to a period of hyper-elevated mood that is euphoric, giddy, easily irritated, hyperactive, impulsive, overly optimistic, and even grandiose **See slides for comparison of bipolar disorder and MDD** Understanding Mood Disorders - Biological aspects and explanations - Evolutionary - Genetic - Brain/body - Social-cognitive aspects and explanations - Negative thoughts and negative mood - Explanatory style - The vicious cycle An Evolutionary Perspective on the Biology of Depression: - Depression, in its milder, non-disordered form, may have had survival value. - Under stress, depression is social-emotional hibernation. It allows humans to: - Conserve energy - Avoid conflicts and other risks - Let go of attainable goals - Take time to contemplate Biology of Depression: Brain: - Brain activity is diminished in depression and increased in mania - Brain structure: smaller frontal lobes in depression and fewer axons in bipolar disorder - Brain cell communication (neurotransmitters): - More norepinephrine (arousing) in mania, less in depression - Reduced serotonin (mood/behavior) in depression The social-cognitive perspective: Depression is Associated with: - Low self esteem: discounting positive information and assuming the worst about self, situation, and the future - Learned helplessness: self-defeating beliefs such as assuming that one (self) is unable to cope, improve, achieve, or be happy Depressive Explanatory Style: How we Analyze Bad News Predicts Mood Problematic Event: Breakup with romantic Partner Depression: The problem is… - Stable: “I’ll never get over this.” - Global: “Without my partner I can’t seem to do anything right.” - Internal: “Our breakup was all my fault.” Successful Coping: The problem is… - Temporary: “This is hard to take but I will get through this.” - Specific: “I miss my partner, but thankfully I have my family and friends.” - External: “It takes two to make a relationship work and it wasn’t meant to be” Depression’s Vicious Cycle: - A depressed mood may develop when a person with a negative outlook experiences related stress - The depressed mood changes a person’s style of thinking and interacting in a way that makes stressful experience more likely. 1. Stressful experience 2. Negative explanatory style 3. Depressed mood 4. Cognitive and behavioral changes 04/20 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Module 52: Schizophrenia Split from reality and from self - Schizophrenia symptoms: - Disorganized thinking, delusions - Disturbed perceptions: hallucinations Schizophrenia: - the mind is split from reality, i.e. a split from one’s own thoughts so that they appear as hallucinations - Psychosis refers to a mental split from reality and Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Positive (presence of problematic behavior): - Hallucinations (illusory perceptions), especially auditory - Delusions (illusory beliefs), especially persecutory - Disorganized speech - Bizarre behaviors Negative (absence of healthy behavior): - Flat affect (no emotion showing in the face) - Reduced social interaction - Anhedonia (no feeling of enjoyment) - Avolition (less motivation, initiative, focus on tasks) - Alogia (speaking less) - Catatonia (moving less) Delusions: - irrational /illogical beliefs - Often paranoid Schizophrenia Symptoms: Problems Thinking and Speaking: - Disorganized speech, including the “word salad” of loosely associated phrases - Problems with selective attention, difficulty filtering thoughts and choosing which thoughts to believe and say out loud Disturbed Perceptions: Hallucinations - Visual - Auditory - Tactile - Gustatory - Olfactory Inappropriate or Limited Emotions: - Odd and socially inappropriate responses - Flat affect: facial/body expression is “flat” with no visible emotional content - Impaired perception of emotions Inappropriate Actions/Behavior: Odd and socially inappropriate behavior can be caused by symptoms such as: - Errors in social perception - Disorganized unfiltered thinking - Delusions and hallucinations The schizophrenic body exhibits symptoms such as: - Repetitive behaviors such as rocking and rubbing - Catatonia Genetics and Schizophrenia: - Genetics definitely increase the risk of schizophrenia - It doesn’t explain everything Environmental Factor: - Shared placenta means more shared risk of schizophrenia for identical twins Understanding Schizophrenia: What’s going on in the brain in schizophrenia? - Abnormal brain structure and activity: - Too many dopamine/D4 receptors - Poor coordination of neural firing in the frontal lobes impairs judgement and self control - The thalamus fires during hallucinations - Ventricles Are there psychological causes? - Social-Psychological Factors: - Genetics aren't everything - “Bad” parenting is not the cause - Stress may cause onset 04/21 (lab) 9-9:50 am Peer review for article summary paper, due Mon 04/25
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