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Introduction to Psychology week 15 Notes

by: AHegerman

Introduction to Psychology week 15 Notes Psych 111

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This covers Dr. Virginia Clinton's week 15 Introduction to Psychology Notes
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
04/25 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Module 53: Dissociative, Personality, and Eating Disorders Dissociative Disorders - Dissociation: Separation of conscious awareness from thoughts, memory, bodily sensations, feelings, or even identity - May be a psychological escape - Dissociative Disorder: Dysfunction and distress caused by chronic and severe dissociation Dissociative Amnesia - Loss of memory with no known physical cause; inability to recall selected memories or any memories - Follows a psychological trauma - Retrieval cues may trigger memories - Plot device (TV shows, movies, etc.) - Very rare - Criminals tend to claim they have dissociative disorders (Organic) Amnesia vs Dissociative Amnesia - Both related to inability to recall important information - Organic amnesia follows medical condition/event (car crash, substance abuse) - Dissociative amnesia follows psychological trauma Dissociative Fugue - “Running away” state; wandering away from one’s life, memory, and identity, with no memory of these - Involves the loss of personal identity and memory, often involving a flight from a person’s usual place of residence Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D.) - Development of separate personalities (Multiple Personality Disorder) - A presence within a person of two or more distinct personality states, each with its own pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self - Alternative personalities or “alters” - Very rare! Is D.I.D. Real? - “Sybil” is a famous example - Diagnoses increased as did media attention - Lack of clear definitions - Possibly iatrogenic (caused by treatment) - Identities might just be extreme roles of self Evidence That D.I.D. is Real - Different personalities have involved: - Different brain wave patterns - Different left-right handedness - Different visual acuity and eye muscle balance patterns - Patients with D.I.D. show different brain activity Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa - Preoccupation with weight - Significantly underweight - May restrict eating or engage in binge eating/purging - Highest fatality rate of any other disorder - Two types of anorexia - Restrictive anorexia is not eating enough calories to maintain a healthy weight - Binge eating and purging (not only for people with bulimia) is when you eat a lot and then purge in an unhealthy way - Bulimia Nervosa - A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in combination with some form of compensatory behavior aimed at undoing the effects of the binge or preventing weight gain - Compensatory behaviors - Purging - Excessive exercise - Fasting - Laxatives - Normal Weight The String Test Assessment - Estimate the circumference of your waist and thigh, then actually measure the - circumference of both. Fiji: A Case Study in Cultural Influences on Eating Disorders - Curvacious figure is traditionally the ideal in Fiji - Prior to western influences, almost no eating disorders in Fiji - After the arrival of western influences 10% of the village had developed these eating disorders - Importance of BMI - Binging and compensatory behaviors with BMI under 18.5 → Anorexia - Binging and compensatory behaviors with BMI over 18.5 → Bulimia - Binge Eating Disorders (BED) - A disorder characterized by regular binge eating behaviors, but without the compensatory behaviors that are part of bulimia nervosa - Common in people who are overweight or obese Personality Disorder - Enduring patterns of social and other behavior than impair social functioning - Three Ps patterns of behavior - Persistent (over time) - Pervasive (over people and situations) - Pathological (clearly abnormal) - Antisocial Personality Disorder [APD] - Antisocial personality disorder refers to acting impulsively or fearlessly without regard for others needs and feelings - The diagnostic criteria: - Deceitfulness - Disregard for safety of self or others - Aggressiveness - Failure to conform to social norms - Lack of remorse - Impulsivity and failure to plan ahead - Irritability - Irresponsibility regarding jobs, family, and money - APD does not correlate to criminality 04/27 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Recap: - Dissociative Disorders - Dissociative Amnesia - Dissociative Fugue - Dissociative Identity Disorder - Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa - Bulimia Nervosa - Binge Eating Disorder - Personality Disorder - Antisocial Personality Disorder Module 42: Social Thinking Attribution: Identifying Causes - Attribution: a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event. Attribution Theory: We explain behavior with two types of attributions: - Situational Attribution (factor​utside the persondoing the action, such as peer pressure), or - Dispositional Attribution (the person’s stable, endur​rait, personality, ability, emotions) Fundamental Attribution Error - Tendency to blame disposition for others - Blame the situation for ourselves - Protective function Attitudes and Actions Attitude: Feelings, ideas, and beliefs that affect how we approach and react to other people, objects, and events. - Attitudes, by definition, affect our actions; - We shall see later that our actions can also influence our attitudes Two cognitive pathways to affect attitudes - Central route persuasion - Going directly through the rational mind, influencing attitudes with evidence and logic. - Peripheral route persuasion - Changing attitudes by going around the rational mind and appealing to fears, desires, and associations. Actions Affect Attitudes: If attitudes direct our actions, can it work the other way around? How can it happen that we can take an action which in turn shifts our attitude about that action? Through three social-cognitive mechanisms: - The foot in the door phenomenon - The effects of playing a role, and - Cognitive dissonance Small Compliance → Large Compliance A political campaigner asks if you would open the door just enough to pass a clipboard through. [ Or a foot] - You agree to this - Then you agree to sign a petition - Then you agree to make a small contribution, by check What happened here? The Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon: the tendency to be more likely to agree to a large request after agreeing to a small one - Effect on Attitudes: people adjust their attitudes along with their actions Patricia Hearst - Heiress and Actress - Kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) - Physically abused - Ended up joining the SLA Role Playing Affects Attitudes: When we play a role, even if we know it is just pretending, we eventually tend to adopt the attitudes that go with the role, and become the role. - Actors say they “lose themselves” in their roles - Participants in the Stanford Prison Study ended up adopting the attitudes of whatever roles they were randomly assigned to; - “guards” had demeaning views of “prisoners” - “prisoners” had rebellious dislike of the “guards” Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance: When our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes. Cognitive Dissonance Theory: The observation that we tend to resolve this dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions. Origin of Cognitive Dissonance Theory Festinger’s Study (1957): Students were paid either large or small amounts to express enjoyment of a boring activity. - Getting paid more “I was paid to say I like it” - Getting paid less “Why would I say it was fun? Just for a dollar, weird. Maybe it wasn’t so bad now that I think about it.” 04/28 (lab) 9-9:50 am Social Psychology - Everyone’s influence on us, and the influence we have on everyone else. Ted talk by Phil Zimbardo (Stanford Prison Study) As we watched, we took notes on the video relating to the following vocabulary: - Social thinking: having group thoughts - What versus Who is the problem? - Dispositional; inside the person: who are the bad apples - Situational; - Persuasion to commit mass suicide - Good apples in a bad situation - Fundamental attribution error - When soldiers were attacking prisoners in Abu Ghraib Iraq Prison 2003; “don’t blame us, its the bad soldiers” - “Good cop Bad cop.” - “I wouldn’t electrocute a person” 90% of Americans do in the study - “Understanding is not excusing” - Foot in the door phenomenon - Good people can cross against the “permeable line” of good and evil - It starts with 15 volts - Heroism is the counteract to Evil - Role playing - Simulation of Sodomy, “my guards did it in 5 days” - Stripping the prisoners naked, and making them clean the toilet with their bare hands - “Prison guards” hold a role of power; wearing military gear - Cognitive dissonance: when our actions are not in harmony with our attitude - Dehumanization of others and self - “The Lucifer Effect”; Evis is the exercise of power - The same situation that can inflame the evil in some can inflame the hero in others - Heroes are ordinary people who do unordinary acts - “I did what anyone could have done, and I did what they ought to have done.” - “Think it and then do it”


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