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BSC 310 Exam 1 Flashcards

by: Mallory Ivy

BSC 310 Exam 1 Flashcards BSC 310

Mallory Ivy
GPA 3.82

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About this Document

Here is the material needed for Dr. Olson's exam 1. It covers Chapters 1-2, and half of Chapter 3 from Brock Biology of Microorganism.
Dr. Olson
Class Notes
cellular biology, cellular metabolism, Cellular Respiration, Energy, structure
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This 196 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Ivy on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 310 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Olson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
3 Domains of Life 1a Archaea, Eukarya, and Bacteria 1b (9+2) structure 2a describes structure of cilia and flagella; 9 pairs of microtubules surrounding a central pair 2b ABC Transport System 3a -ATP-binding cassette -Three components: substrate-binding protein/periplasmic binding, membrane-integrated transporter, and ATP-hydrolyzing protein -high-substrate affinity -found in both Gm- and Gm+ 3b amphitrichous 4a tufts of flagella at both poles of organisms 4b Archaeal Flagella vs. Bacterial 5a -uses several proteins unrelated to flagellin -uses ATP rather than PMF 5b archaeal membranes 6a -contain ether bonds between glycerol and hydrophobic side chains -side chains are repeating subunits of isoprene -composed of glycerol diethers and phytanhyl groups (20C)(bilayer) or diglycerol tetraethers and biphytanyl groups (monolayer) 6b autoclave 7a large, pressurized chamber using moist heat; used for sterilization 7b bond energy 8a anhydride > thioester > ester example compounds: phosphoenolpyruvate (anhydride) > ATP (2 anhydride and one ester bond) 8b Bright-Field Microscopy 9a only for organisms with pigmentation that sets them apart from the background 9b capsule 10a -tight matrix that blocks out small particles like stains -often stained with India ink most are firmly attached to cell wall 10b catabolism 11a breaking down; energy- yielding reactions 11b coenzyme 12a non-protein components of enzymes -ex: nicotinamide 12b cofactor 13a inorganic compounds that aid enzymes 13b complex media 14a uses digests of microbes, animals, or plants or their products -exact composition is unknown 14b Components of Flagellar Rotary Motor 15a rotar moves; includes central rod and rings stator is static; includes Mot proteins 15b Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy 16a -laser source and fluorescent microscope -3D image with only one plane in focus at one time -layers can be assembled to give 3D image 16b conjugation 17a process by which bacteria exchange genetic information 17b Dark-Field Microscopy 18a -uses light that reaches specimen from only the sides -light is scattered by the specimen making it appear light on a dark background 18b defined media 19a Exact composition is known 19b diaminopimelic acid (DAP) 20a amino acid analog found in PG 20b Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy (DIC) 21a -produce polarized light in a single plane and goes through a prism -differences in the refractive indices of the material affect the rejoined two beams of light causing interference which enhances cell structures 21b differential media 22a uses and INDICATOR to reveal whether a particular chemical reaction has occured 22b Differential Stains 23a shows different types of cells in different colors -ex: Gram stain 23b dipicolinic acid 24a in core of endospore helps push out water alongside calcium ; appears necessary in spores but not in vegetative cells 24b endergonic reaction 25a requires energy input delta G is positive 25b Endospore Formation and Germination 26a 1. activation: usually heating at an elevated temperature 2. germination: loss of resistance to heat and chemicals and refractile nature 3. out grow: visible swelling due to water uptake and synthesis of RNA, DNA, protein 26b endospores 27a -highly differentiated cells that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and radiation -dormant -very refractile 27b Endospore Structure 28a 1. exosporium- outermost thin layer of protein 2. spore coat- multiple; within the exosporium with spore-specific proteins 3. cortex- loosely cross-linked PG 4. core- contains core wall, membrane, cytoplasm, cell components including dipicolinic acid 28b endosymbiont hypothesis 29a -chloroplasts, mitochondria, and hydrogenosomes are likely descendants of once free-living bacteria -each has its own genome and ribosomes, genetically similar rRNA to bacteria 29b energy storage polymers 30a glycogen, poly-β- hydroxybutyrate, and elemental sulfur 30b enriched media 31a adds additional nutrients such as BLOOD or SERUM to a complex base 31b Essential cations and anions for most organisms 32a potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium 32b essential nutrients for all organisms 33a Selenium, Nitrogen, Carbons, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur (SeN CHOPS) 33b ester linkages 34a bacteria and eukarya have ester linkages between the fatty acids and glycerol 34b eukaryotic flagellar movement 35a propel in whip-like motion -occurs to microtubules sliding against one another; dynein uses ATP to drive motility 35b Ferdinand Cohn 36a founder of bacteriology 36b Ferric 37a F^3+ (threesome? ICK!) 37b free energy 38a -energy available to do work -designated by a G 38b Functions of Cytoplasmic Membrane 39a -permeability barrier -protein anchor -energy conservation 39b gelling agent 40a solidifies liquid cultures 40b genome 41a entire complement of an organism's genes 41b Germ Theory of Disease 42a diseases can be caused by microorganism that are too small to see by naked eye 42b glycan tetrapeptide 43a -PG subunits are connected to form a glycan tetrapeptide -contains N-acetylglucosamine, N- acetylmuramic acid and 4 of the following D-alanine, L-alanine, D- glutamic acid, lysine, and DAP (diaminopimelic acid) 43b glycogen 44a In addition to PHAs, glycogen is another form of intracellular C storage 44b Gm- Flagellar structure 45a includes flagellin, hook, L ring through outer membrane, rod extending through the basal body, P-ring through peptidoglycan layer, MS ring on the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic membrane and a C ring on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. between the MS ring and the C ring are Fli proteins. Surrounding the complex of Fli proteins and cytoplasmic membrane rings are MOT proteins. 45b Gram negative versus gram positive cells 46a gram negative- has thin PG and outer membrane gram positive- 46b Gram Stain 47a Gram positive stains purple and gram negative stains pink. 47b Group Translocation 48a -energy-rich organic compound drives the event -chemical modification driven by phosphoenolpyruvate -nonspecifc, Enzyme I --> HPr -- >specific Enzyme IIa --> Enzyme IIb--> Enzyme IIc embedded in membrane 48b heterotrophs 49a use organic carbon as source of carbon rather than CO2 49b hopanoids 50a bacterial structural analogs of sterols; used to strengthen membrane 50b hydrogenosomes 51a -found in cells without mitochondria that carry out a strictly fermentative metabolism -carries out oxidation of pyruvate to H2, CO2, and acetate 51b intermediate filaments 52a made of keratin proteins -maintain cell shape and position organelles in cell 52b Koch's Postulates 53a 1. suspected pathogen must be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals 2. suspected pathogen must be grown in pure culture 3. cells from a pure culture of the suspected pathogen must cause disease in a healthy animal 4. the suspected pathogen must be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original 53b layers of peptidoglycan are held together by _____ bonds 54a glycosidic bonds 54b lipopolysaccharide layer (LPS) 55a -in order from interior to exterior, consists of Lipid A (source of endotoxin), core polysaccharide, and O-specific polysaccharide (specific to species) 55b lophotrichous 56a tuft of flagella at one end of an organism 56b Louis Pasteur 57a -discovered optical isomers -spontaneous generation, technically termed germ theory of disease - pasteurization 57b LUCA 58a last universal common ancestor 58b lysozyme 59a cleaves bonds between PG saccharides 59b magentosomes 60a -found in several aquatic organisms that grow in low O2 environment 60b microfilaments 61a made of actin -maintain or change cell shape, motility, and in cell division 61b microtubules 62a -composed of alpha and beta tubulin -maintain cell shape, motility, chromosome movement during mitosis, and organelle movement within the cell 62b mitochondria 63a -location for respiration -double membrane -folded membranes called cristae with enzymes needed for respiration and ATP production -uses PMF to generate ATP 63b nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) 64a -coenzyme -transports two electrons and two protons at the same time -weak electron acceptor while NADH is a good electron donor -NAD+/NADH allows chemically dissimilar electron donors and electron acceptors to interact by acting as an intermediary 64b osmotaxis 65a response to ionic strength 65b outer membrane 66a -a second lipid bilayer in gram negative cell -out-facing side contains LPS layer -only in Gm- -contains porins 66b paracrystalline surface layer (S layer) 67a -consists of interlocking protein or glycoprotein -usually outermost layer of cell wall in archaea 67b peptidoglycan 68a -rigid layer responsible for the strength of hte wall -polysaccharide composed of N- acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid -β (1,4) linkages between the two sugars -individual layers bound by peptide bonds 68b peripheral proteins 69a not membrane-embedded but remain associated often by an anchoring lipid tail 69b periplasm 70a lies between cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane of Gm- bacteria 70b peritrichous 71a flagella attached anywhere and all over 71b Phase Contrast Microscopy 72a exploits subtle differences in refractive indices of water and cytoplasmic contents 72b pili 73a Function: -receptors for some viruses -facilitate conjugation -adhesion to specific tissues 73b poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) 74a -common storage for carbon -due to size range, generically called poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) -refract a great deal of light and numerous 74b porin 75a -found in outer membrane only -transmembrane protein that only small molecules can pass through 75b Properties of ALL cells 76a 1. metabolism 2. growth 3. evolution 76b Properties of SOME Cells 77a 1. differentation 2. communication 2. genetic exchange 4. motility 77b prosthetic groups 78a -bind tightly to enzymes, usually permanently -only association to one enzyme 78b pseudomeurein 79a -found in some methanogenic archaeal polysaccharide walls -backbone= N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid -all AA are L-isomer -bonds are β(1,3) β(1,4) 79b quorem sensing 80a communication between bacteria that allow them to act together instead of individually 80b redox tower 81a -most negative Esub0' values at top -this reduced substance will most likely donate electrons to the [naturally] oxidized substance at the bottom -greater drop= greater released energy -deltaEsub0 prime is proportional to delta G sub0 prime 81b reduction potential 82a -tendency to be electron donor or acceptor, measured in volts in reference to a standard (hydrogen gas) -more negative= donor -more positive= acceptor 82b resolution 83a the ability to distinguish two adjacent objects as separate and distinct 83b RNA, DNA, or protein contribute most to the biomass of a cell! 84a protein; for this, there is a higher percentage of RNA than DNA but protein products outweigh both RNA and DNA 84b Role of Coenzymes in Redox Reactions 85a 1. enzyme I reacts with electron donor substrate and NAD+ 2. NADH and reaction product is formed 3. Enzyme II reacts with electron acceptor substrate and NADH 4. product and NAD+ are released 85b saturation gradient 86a can only go against gradient for so long until it requires too much energy the rate will level off 86b Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 87a -scanning the surface -3D image 87b selective media 88a INHIBITS growth of some microbes but not others 88b sigma factors 89a a protein needed only for initiation of RNA synthesis (thus transcription) 89b (simple) basic stains 90a methylene blue, crystal violet, and safranin 90b simple transport 91a -membrane-spanning transport protein; driven by proton motive force 91b slime layers 92a -less dense than capsules -pick up small molecules but not india ink -loosely attached to cell wall 92b Specialty Stains 93a specific for certain cells or certain parts of cells -ex: acid fast stains Mycobacterium's thick, waxy coating 93b teichoic acids 94a -embedded in cell wall that are covalently bonded to muramic acid --negatively charged phosphates are partly responsible for negatively charged membrane -bind calcium and magnesium -also covalently bound to membrane lipids are called lipoteichoic acid 94b thioester bonds 95a -found in compounds such as acetyl-CoA -actually better energy storage that outer two anhydride bonds in ATP 95b Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) 96a -ultrathin section -requires staining -studies interior, 2D image 96b Type IV Pili 97a -assist cells in adhesion and provide twitching motility -gliding along surface through drag and retract method -requires ATP 97b Why are most eukaryotic genomes linear? 98a easier to access 98b


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