VIAR 121 Precursors of the Renaissance - Florence
VIAR 121 Precursors of the Renaissance - Florence VIAR 121
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in Art History Survey 1
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Visual Arts
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Kelehan on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to VIAR 121 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Rebecca Kreisler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey 1 in Visual Arts at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
Reviews for VIAR 121 Precursors of the Renaissance - Florence
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/02/16
VIAR 121 Precursors of the Renaissance - Florence Late Medieval/Proto-Renaissance th th 14 -16 centuries are generally considered the Renaissance (French word for rebirth), though the exact beginning date is debatable and fluid The transitional period is often called Post-Gothic or Proto-Renaissance, and is centered in the Italian cities of Florence and Siena Involves self-conscious revival of interest in Greek/Roman texts and culture that are reflected in art Nicola Pisano, pulpit, Pisa Baptistery, 1259–1260 Pisano trained at the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who encouraged a Roman revival Fusion of Gothic and Roman styles (trilobed arches, Corinthian capitals, etc.) Nicola Pisano, relief of the Nativity, also showing the Annunciation, the Annunciation to the Shepherds, and the Washing of the Infant Christ, pulpit, Pisa Baptistery, 1259–1260 Combination of several related scenes into a single space Largest figure is Mary (pose shows influence from Etruscan and Roman tomb effigies) Forms reminiscent of imperial Roman reliefs with naturalistic drapery Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned, c. 1280–1290 Cimabue considered the last of the great painters of the Byzantine tradition in Italy o Gold background, linear nature of drapery, long thin proportions of figures o Elaborate throne with no visible back, defying its materiality o Man-like Christ child Mary gestures toward Christ but looks toward viewer, as an intermediary Painted as an altarpiece—a newly common space for images Giotto, Madonna Enthroned (Ognissanti Madonna) c. 1310 Byzantine influence replaced by rise of humanism; naturalistic human form becomes a major pursuit of the Renaissance artist New style most exemplified by the works of Giotto di Bondone, born near Florence Considered a master of clarity and illusionism, versus the “darkness” of the middle ages Compare: Cimabue to Giotto Similarities: o Elaborate thrones, gold backgrounds and flat, round halos that do not turn with heads o Similar arrangement of figures in composition Differences: o Giotto’s throne sits more naturally in space, Cimabue’s space is irrational o Viewer’s perspectival relationship to the space in Giotto’s painting is clearer o Giotto’s figures are bulkier, respond to gravity, Cimabue’s are longer, thinner o Giotto’s draperies hang more convincingly; forms shaded (chiaroscuro) rather than outlined o Cimabue’s Christ more man-like in proportion; Giotto’s is chubbier, though still posing and gesturing regally Arena Chapel (Scrovegni Chapel), Padua, c. 1305 Arena chapel founded by Enrico Scrovegni, the wealthiest Paduan citizen, as an act of atonement for sins of his family Simple, barrel-vaulted, rectangular space, brick exterior Minimal architectural elements, windows, etc. Interior view, looking east, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Best preserved example of Giotto’s work is the Arena Chapel’s elaborate fresco cycle North and south walls feature 3 levels of rectangular scenes illustrating the lives of Mary, her parents Anna and Joachim, and Jesus Below narrative scenes are Virtues and Vices (Virtues on right, Vices on left) Giotto, Justice, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Justice portrayed as an enthroned queen in a Gothic architectural setting Holds Nike in her right hand, like the Athena of the Parthenon, indicating that justice brings victory Agricultural scenes below Giotto, Injustice, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Injustice is a tyrant enclosed in a crenellated castle, separated from viewer by trees Cracks in the wall indicated stress and instability of unjust government Bottom, instead of agriculture show scenes of the result of tyranny—pillage, rape, war Giotto, Chancel Arch, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Top: Gabriel’s Mission Left: Betrayal of Judas Right: Visitation Toward bottom: illusionistic chapels Giotto, Annunciation, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Architectural space with balconies that seem to project outward Theatrical space: 3D, shallow, small in relation to figures Figures are solid and sculptural, poses obvious beneath drapery Diagonal rays of light enter Mary’s room from a divine source, alluding to the enlightenment that Christ will bring to the world Giotto, Nativity, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Annunciation to the Shepherds combined with the Nativity Simple, massive draperies monumentalize the forms Space allows for more dramatic interactions between figures Intimate connection between Mary and Jesus (unlike Pisano’s Mary who looks outward to viewer) Giotto, Crucifixion, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Jesus hangs heavily from the cross, reacting to gravity Arms elongated, muscles stretched, ribcage visible – very human Transparent drapery reveals figure beneath Mary slumps, supported by John and a woman; Mary Magdalene kneels in front of the cross Space between Jesus and the figures to his left=symbolic distance from executioners Giotto, Last Judgment, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Final scene in chapel is the Last Judgment; occupying the entire west wall, last thing seen as the viewer exits the chapel Host of heaven (military angels) on either side of the window Two figures at top roll up the sky to reveal the golden vaults of heaven Mary heads the saved, as intermediary between human and divine Below the window a large central Christ sits in a rainbow circle of light held up by angels, flanked by the 12 apostles Hands gesture the saving and condemnation of souls, looks toward the saved Hell lower than heaven, most medieval-looking of the Arena Chapel frescoes Hell is disordered, souls being tortured Directly below Christ, angels hold the cross, dividing the composition – little figure behind the cross tries so sneak over from hell Monstrous blue Satan swallows one soul, serpents emerge from his ears to bite others In hell, Reginaldo Scrovegni’s financial sin alluded to as a bishop is approached with a man holding a bag of money Conversely, on the saved side, Enrico kneels, assisted by a monk, holding up a model of the chapel to Mary and two other figures Giotto, Stigmatization of Saint Francis, exterior of the Bardi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, after 1317 St. Francis pursued poverty in imitation of Christ Major event in his life was receiving the stigmata (wounds of the crucifixion) from Christ in the form of a seraphim Landscape and architecture serve to reinforce more important figures St. Francis is solid and sculptural, reacting physically to the spiritual event
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'