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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess Graff on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 508 at University of New Hampshire taught by Mary Katherine Lockwood, PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
BMS 508.03 4/13/2016 Chapter 25 Digestion & Metabolism (cont) Metabolism (cont) • Catabolism • The breakdown of organic substrates • Releases energy used to synthesize high-energy compounds (e.g., ATP) • Anabolism • Is the synthesis of new organic molecules • In energy terms: • Anabolism is an “uphill” process that forms new chemical bonds • Functions of Organic Compounds • Perform structural maintenance and repairs • Support growth • Produce secretions • Store nutrient reserves • Organic Compounds • Glycogen • Most abundant storage carbohydrate • A branched chain of glucose molecules • Triglycerides • Most abundant storage lipids • Primarily of fatty acids • Proteins • Most abundant organic components in body • Perform many vital cellular functions Carbohydrate Metabolism • Carbohydrate Metabolism • Generates ATP and other high-energy compounds by breaking down carbohydrates Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water • Glucose Breakdown • Occurs in small steps • Which release energy to convert ADP to ATP • One molecule of glucose nets 36 molecules of ATP • Glycolysis • Breaks down glucose in cytosol into smaller molecules used by mitochondria • Does not require oxygen (anaerobic reaction) • Aerobic Reactions • Also called aerobic metabolism or cellular respiration • Occur in mitochondria, consume oxygen, and produce ATP • Glycolysis • Breaks 6-carbon glucose • Into 2 3-carbon pyruvic acid • Pyruvate • Ionized form of pyruvic acid • Glycolysis Factors • Glucose molecules • Cytoplasmic enzymes • ATP and ADP • Inorganic phosphates • NAD (coenzyme) • Mitochondrial ATP Production • If oxygen supplies are adequate, mitochondria absorb and break down pyruvic acid molecules • H atoms of pyruvic acid are removed by coenzymes and are primary source of energy gain • C and O atoms are removed and released as CO in the proces2 of decarboxylation • Mitochondrial Membranes • Outer membrane • Contains large-diameter pores • Permeable to ions and small organic molecules (pyruvic acid) • Inner membrane • Contains carrier protein • Moves pyruvic acid into mitochondrial matrix • Intermembrane space • Separates outer and inner membranes • The Citric Acid Cycle • The function of the citric acid cycle is: • To remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes • In the mitochondrion: • Pyruvic acid reacts with NAD and coenzyme A (CoA) • Producing 1 CO , 1 2ADH, 1 acetyl-CoA • Acetyl group transfers: • From acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetic acid • Produces citric acid • CoA is released to bind another acetyl group • One citric acid cycle removes two carbon atoms • Regenerating 4-carbon chain • Several steps involve more than one reaction or enzyme • H2O molecules are tied up in two steps • CO i2 a waste product • The product of one citric acid cycle is: • 1 molecule of GTP (guanosine triphosphate) • Summary of the Citric Acid Cycle CH C3 CoA + 3 NAD + FAD + GDP + P + 2 H O i 2 + CoA + 2 CO + 3 2ADH + FADH + 2 H + GTP 2 • Oxidative Phosphorylation and the ETS • Oxidative Phosphorylation • Is the generation of ATP • Within mitochondria • In a reaction requiring coenzymes and oxygen • Produces more than 90% of ATP used by body • Results in 2 H + 2 2 H2O 2
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