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Cultrual Anthropology

by: Megan Angelo

Cultrual Anthropology ANTH-18210-49

Marketplace > Kent State University > ANTH-18210-49 > Cultrual Anthropology
Megan Angelo

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Ch. 15 Notes Anthropology’s Role in a Globalizing World
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Jeanne M. Stumpf-Carome (P)
Class Notes
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Angelo on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH-18210-49 at Kent State University taught by Jeanne M. Stumpf-Carome (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
Ch. 15 Anthropology’s Role in a Globalizing World Globalization as fact: spread and connectedness of production, distribution, consumption, communication and technologies across the world Globalization is contested ideology and policy Globalization: is the globalization of risk - Concerns about risks often more developed in groups that are less endangered objectively - Risks no longer are just local or regional Global Climate Change: - Scientific measurements confirm global warming not due to increased solar radiation - Most scientists agree that human activities play a major role Anthropogenic: caused by humans and their activities Greenhouse effect: warming from trapped atmospheric gases Climate change: beyond rising temperatures, there are changes in sea levels, rainfall patterns, storms and ecosystem effects - Artic landscape and ecosystems are changing in sea levels, rainfall patterns, storms and ecosystem effects - Artic landscapes and ecosystems are changing rapidly and perceptibly - Coastal communities anticipate increased flooding and severe storms - Growing global demand for energy is single greatest obstacle to slowing climate change Worldwide energy use: - The U.S. uses about 80% of all energy derived from fossil fuels - Alternatives include: o Nuclear Power o Renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind, and biomass generators Environmental Anthropology: Ecological anthropology: study of cultural adaptations to environments Ethno ecology: society’s set of environmental practices and perceptions - Indigenous ethno ecologies are being increasingly challenged by migration, media, and commerce Global Assaults on Local Autonomy - A clash of cultures may occur when development threatens indigenous people and their environments - Spread of environmentalism may expose different notions about the “rights” and value of plants and animals versus humans - Effective conservation strategies pay attention to needs and wishes of local people Deforestation: - Forest loss can increase greenhouse gas production of loss of global biodiversity - Deforestation often demographically driven - Commercial logging, road building, cash cropping, and clearing and burning associated with livestock and grazing are other causes Reasons to change behavior must make sense to local people Interethnic Contact - Since at least 1920, anthropologists investigated changes that arise from contacts between industrial and nonindustrial societies Acculturation: changes in cultural patterns or either or both groups Westernization: accumulative influence of Western expansion on indigenous people and their cultures - Different degrees of destruction, domination, resistance, survival, adaptation, and modification of native cultures ma follow interethnic contact - John Bodley: “shock phase” often follows an initial encounter - Outsiders often attempt to remake native landscapes and cultures in their own image - May include civil repression Cultural Imperialism: spread of advance of one culture at the expense of others - Some see modern technology as erasing cultural differences - Others see modern technology as providing an opportunity for social groups (local cultures) to express themselves - Brazil: local practices, celebrations, and performances changed in context of outside forces Making and Remaking Culture: - People constantly make and remake culture in context of globalization - Assign their own meanings to information, images, and products Indigenizing Popular Culture: - When forces from world centers enter new societies, the societies become indigenized: modified to fit the local culture - Native Australians- Rambo- Representative of Third World battling a white officer class A Global System of Images - The mass media present a rich, ever changing store of possible lives - Culturally alien programming won’t do very well if a quality local choice is available - The mass media play a role in maintaining people’s ethnic and national identities among people who lead transnational lives Global Culture of Consumption - Finance is key transnational force - Multinational corporations and other business interests look beyond national boundaries - U.S. Economy increasingly influenced by foreign investment from Britain, Canada, Germany, Netherlands and Japan American economy also increased its dependence on foreign labor through immigration and export of jobs People in Motion - Appadurai: views today’s world as “trans local” “interactive system” that is “strikingly new” - Scale of human movement expanded dramatically - Most migrants maintain ties with native land - Diaspora: offspring of an area who have spread to many lands Postmodernity: describes our time and situation, with today’s world in flux Postmodern: period of a blurring and breakdown of established canons, categories, distinctions, and boundaries Postmodernism: style of movement in architecture that succeeded modernism – beginning in the 1970’s Postmodernity- traditional standards, contrasts, groups, boundaries, and identities - Open up, reach out and break down- political and ethnic groups emerged with globalization Indigenous People’s - United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) - Formed in 1982 - Social indigenous people movements adopted the term indigenous people as a self-identifying political label - Legitimizing search for social cultural and political rights Social Scientists and Politicians in Latin America prefer indigena over Indio when referring to native inhabitants - Emphasis shifted- biological and cultural assimilation- mestizaje- to identifies that value differences - Establish self-determination, Latin America’s Indigenous peoples emphasize the following o Cultural distinctiveness o Political reforms involving restructuring the state o Territorial rights and access to natural resources o Reforms of military and police powers Ceuppens and Geschiere: explore the upsurge of autochthony (being native to a place) with an implicit call for excluding strangers in different areas - Autochthony- claimed by majority groups in Europe Identity in Indigenous Politics - Essentialism: process of viewing identity as established, real, and frozen - Identity is fluid and multiple - Identities are seen as o Potentially plural o Emerging through a specific process o Ways of being someone in particular times and places The Continuance of Diversity - Anthropology has crucial role in promoting more humanistic vison of social change - Respects value of cultural diversity


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