Chapter 1 ( Prehistoric to Early Colonization)
Chapter 1 ( Prehistoric to Early Colonization) HIST 201 01
Popular in United States History to 1865
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia List on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 201 01 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Jonathon Wilson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Chapter 1: prehistoric- Columbus 3/29/16 Earliest contact w/ American continents o First humans in America- Asians o Exact date unknown o Bering strait landbridge/travel across oceans (~11000 ya) Ocean levels drop due to low temp Siberia-> Alaska Migration due to new stone tools used to pursue large animals Migrants- “Clovis” "Arlington Springs woman" (thigh bones) Discovered in 1959 on Santa Rosa Island In 1999 dated back to 13000 years ago If date holds, the oldest human remains in North America o Diversification of tribes- lack of unity, territorial conflict Tribelets- ND su vs SD su o Culture Most North American tribes were hunter gatherers, fishers Got along with French Nomadic/seminomadic (migrate for season) A few tribes (CA Chumash, NY Seneca) had women chiefs Slavery mostly due to captured warriors Cahokia (IL) largest NA Indian settlement N of Mexico City (40k by 1200 AD) Trade hub First Verified European Contact o Legend of St. Brennan – built ship landed in new Hampshire o Viking exploration (1000AD) Norse Viking settled Iceland (870AD) Greenland settlement led by Erik the red (986)- prompted due to banishment Vikings searched for fertile pastures o Settlement in North America Led by Leif Ericson (1000AD) Baffin island, Labrador, New Foundland Vikings called Baffin Island "Helluland" Labrador- "Markland" (trees)- violent encounter with Indians ("scralings" Vikings settled in New Foundland for 60-100 years ("vinland") Too isolated- not economic o Europeans knew little, if any about Viking exploration Age of Exploration (Renaissance) 1400s-1600s – due to backlash of black death plague o Reasons Crusades encouraged travel as did Marco Polo (Italy-China) Population of Europe grows demanding more resources Desire for economic gain for middle class merchants Spices, gold, silk in demand Nation state-desire to conquer land Christopher Columbus o Early life- born in genoa, Italy (1451) Where marco polo was from Sailed with Portuguese in Mediterranean sea Worked with brother Bartholomew as a cartographer in Portugal o Goals Desired quickest route to the spice islands (“indies”) in Asia – source of Cinnamon (trade silver) Bartholomew Dias of Portugal tried to go around Africa, never made it. Convinced that the all water route by sailing west and arriving in the East was quickest Underestimated size of the Earth Portugese, Italians, French, English would not provide funding Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain sponsored trip o New nation, needed respectability o Voyage of discovery Sailed from Palos, Spain on Aug 3, 1492 with 90 crewmen Crewmen were debtors or poverty stricken men Nina, Pina, and Santa maria Sailors feared sea monsters, near mutiny after 2 months of no land Landed in the Bahamas on October 12 th Called island “san Salvador” (Holy Lord) Called arawaks (“indians”) Arrived in Cuba, thought it was china “Indians” not as friendly Santa Maria sank off Cuban coastline in Carribean o Later visits to the new world Columbus made 3 more trips to new world In 1493, Columbus established spains first colony to serve as a basecamp (‘Hispaniola’) o Legacy Died in 1506 not realizing impact of his discovery Buried in Dominican republic? Amerigo Vesbucci popularized idea of entirely new land mass [America] Conquistadores arrive o Goals Expand Spains land claim to new continent Search for gold, silver Evangelize tribes to roman catholic Christianity Search for Strait of Anian All water route through the America’s o Impact Ruthlessly conquered tribal populations Decimation of many tribes due to disease Small pox Influenza Measles o Famous Spanish Explorers Balboa- first Europen to see pacific from the new world (1513) Ponce De Leon- Spanish governer of Puerto Rico who claimed Florida for Spain in 1513, searched for the “Fountain of Youth” Hernando Cortes Landed in Mexico in 1519 with Spanish soldiers and indian warriors to conquer Aztecs Driven out by emperor Montezuma II in 1520, Spanish left behind small pox Returned in 1521 and found less resistance due to smallpox, Aztecs defeated Nueva Espana created Desoto- 1 European to discover Mississippi river (1539-1542) Coronado- explored interior of American southwest between 1540 qand 1542, searched for the cities of gold, discovered Colorado river Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo-discovered CA arrived in San Diego on 1/3/1543, buried in CA Spanish claim to CA St. Augustine, FL – 1565 first settlement in the US English settle the new world o Early contact John Cabot explored along Canadian coast -1497 Expedition by davis and Frobisher 1578-1579 Sir Francis Drake English “Sea dog” pillaged Spanish ships for gold Came to CA in 1579 to make repairs to “Golden Hind” No interest in colonization Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s plan to colonize New Foundland, did not materialize Roanoke Island Sir Walter Raleigh- promoter who created a joint stock company to help finance colony Goal: find gold and NW passage (strait of anian) st 1 attempt to colonize failed in 1585 (poor leadership) 2 attempt in 1587 o Governer john white +117 colonists o Virginia dare – 1 English girl born in US o White returns to England In 1590 white returns to Roanoke and is stunned to find no colonists Mystery of the lost colony Jamestown o Begins in 1607 with 105 colonist in Virginia under John Smith Named for King James I Financed by Virginia Company, joint stock company or London Company o Only 38 survived by 1608 due to starvation and war w/ Indians and malaria o Tobacco saves Jamestown
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