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1/27/2016 Lecture 4 Counterproductive Work Behavior (and OCB) A brief review from Tuesday • Name 3 of the 8 dimensions (factors) of Job Performance The Tripartite Model • General Factor of Performance can be divided into three parts – Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – (Avoidance of) Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) Task Avoid OCB CWB 1 1/27/2016 Counterproductive Work Behavior • Definitions • Theories • Measurement • Predictors Counterproductive Work Behavior • Definitions – “Any intentional behavior on the part of an organization member viewed by the organization as contrary to its legitimate interests”(Sackett & DeVore, 2000). – “Scalable actions and behaviors that employees engage in that detract from organizational goals or well-being. The include behaviors that bring about undesirable consequences for the organization or its stakeholders” (Ones & Dilchert, 2013). What do these definitions have in common with how we defined job performance? Counterproductive Work Behavior • The cost to organizations – 2.8 million productive work days each year from absenteeism. – More than $74 billion in costs to organizations. – Almost 5% of U.S. corporations reported violent incidents in 2005. 2 1/27/2016 Counterproductive Work Behavior • Theories A search for the structure of CWB – Property Deviance versus Production Deviance • Hollinger & Clark (1983) – Interpersonal versus Organizational CWB • A.K.A. CWB-I and CWB-O • Robinson & Bennett (2000) – Five Dimensions of Counterproductivity • Abuse, production deviance, sabotage, theft, withdrawal • (Spector et al., 2006) “I” and “O” Dimensions of CWB • Hierarchical structure • Property deviance CWB – Ex. Theft, sabotage • Production deviance ρ = .70 – Ex. Tardiness, sloppy CWB-O CWB-I work, absenteeism, excessive breaks Property Production Deviance Deviance Are all CWBs equal? • Absenteeism • Harassment • Taking excessive breaks • Abusive supervision • Industrial Espionage • Tardiness • Aggression • Kickbacks • Theft (many types of) • Blackmail • Leaving without • Tyranny • Bribery permission • Using company • Littering the work area resources for personal • Bullying • Calling in sick when • Lying use you aren’t sick • Property Destruction • Violating confidentiality • Carelessness • Refusing to follow • Wasting resources • Discrimination instructions • Withdrawal behaviors • Drug use • Rudeness • (and more) • Sabotage • Extortion • Falsifying records • Sexual harassment • Gossip • Social loafing • Gold-bricking • Social undermining 3 1/27/2016 Measuring CWB • Covariance of behaviors – r ≈ .30 between behaviors – r ≈ .50 between composite categories of behaviors – (Gruys, 1999) – Note: this does not mean that someone who steals a pen is likely to beat up their boss. These correlations may indicate that those who engage in more severe behaviors also likely to engage in less severe behaviors, but not necessarily vice versa. Measuring CWB • Opportunity matters – A road paver is unlikely to steal from the cash register. • “Hidden” or “secret” behaviors – Often not directly observed. – Objective measures such as employee records might miss a large portion of behaviors. • Low base-rate behaviors? – Self-report measures show low endorsement rates of scale items (but so do other-report measures). – Self-report can capture hidden/secret behaviors. Measuring CWB • Self-report and Other-report measures were moderately to strongly correlated. • Self-report and Other-report measures were more highly correlated for CWB-I than for CWB-O. • Self-report and Other-report measures exhibited similar correlations with external variables. • (Berry, Carpenter, & Barrett, 2010) 4 1/27/2016 Predictors • A.K.A. correlates or determinants – Individual differences – Environmental (situational) influences Predictors • Individual Differences – Conscientiousness (Berry et al., 2007) • ρ≈ -.42 with CWB-O • ρ≈ -.23 with CWB-I – Agreeableness (Salgado, 2002) • ρ≈ -.32 with CWB-O • ρ≈ -.46 with CWB-I – Neuroticism (Berry et al., 2007) • ρ≈ .23 with CWB-O • ρ≈ .24 with CWB-I – Cognitive ability (Dilchert et al., 2007) Predictors • Environmental (Situational) Influences – Job Satisfaction (Penney & Spector, 2005) • r ≈ -.33 – Organizational Constraints (Penney & Spector, 2005) • r ≈ .35 – Justice Perceptions (Skarlicki & Folger, 1997) • Distributive Justice r ≈ -.44 with Org. Retaliatory Behavior • Procedural Justice r ≈ -.53 with Org. Retaliatory Behavior • Interpersonal Justice r ≈ -.54 with Org. Retaliatory Behavior 5 1/27/2016 CWB and OCB • Not opposites! • CWB and OCB: ρ = -.32 • So, what is OCB? OCB • Organizational Citizenship Behavior • Definition – “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. By discretionary, we mean that the behavior is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description. . .” (Organ, 1988) OCB Components • Podsakoff et al. (2000) 1. Helping behavior 2. Sportsmanship 3. Organizational loyalty 4. Organizational compliance 5. Individual initiative 6. Civic virtue 6 1/27/2016 OCB Components • Podsakoff et al. (2000) – Helping behavior • Voluntarily helping others with, or preventing the occurrence of, work-related problems (ex. Staying late to help a coworker finish a task before deadline.) – Sportsmanship • Willingness to tolerate the inevitable inconveniences and impositions of work without complaining. – Not complaining when inconvenienced by others. – Keeping a positive attitude when things don’t go their way – Not easily offended when suggestions/ideas are rejected by the group. OCB Components • Podsakoff et al. (2000) – Organizational loyalty • Promoting the organization to outsiders, protecting and defending it against external threats, and remaining committed to it even under adverse conditions. – Organizational compliance • Captures a person’s internalization and acceptance of rules, regulations, and procedures; adhering to them even when no one is watching. (Ex. Not using Facebook on company time.) – Is this particular dimension the opposite of a CWB? OCB Components • Podsakoff et al. (2000) – Individual initiative • Engaging in task-related behaviors at a level that is so far beyond minimally required or generally expected levels that it takes on a voluntary flavor. – Civic virtue • General interest in or commitment to the organization – Ex. Participate on committees or volunteering for additional roles beyond the maintenance, worker safety/convenience, or organizational efficiency).or building 7 1/27/2016 Hierarchical Model of OCB OCB ρ = .62 OCB-O OCB-I Loyalty Compliance Sportsmanship Virtue Helping Why OCBs Matter... • Enhance coworker productivity • Enhance managerial productivity • Free up resources for more productive purposes • Reduce the need to devote resources to purely maintenance functions • Serve as an effective means of coordinating activities of team members and work groups • Enhance organization’s ability to attract and retain the best people • Help organization adapt to changes • Because despite their supposedly voluntary nature, they positively impact performance appraisals! Predictors of OCB • Conscientiousness: ρ = .22 • Agreeableness: ρ = .17 • Emotional Stability: ρ = .15 • Extraversion: ρ = .11 • Openness/Intellect: ρ = .17 – (Chiaburu, Oh, Berry, Li, & Gardner, 2011) • Cognitive Ability: ρ = .23 – (Gonzalez-Mule, Mount, & Oh, 2014) • We’ll learn more about personality and cogni tive ability in later lectures. For now, know that these individual differences do influence workplace behaviors. 8 1/27/2016 Brief Announcement • Peer note-taker – If you’re interested in being of assistance, come and see me at the end of class today. Begin to think about. . . • A job you would like to learn more about (maybe the job you wrote down on the index card on the first day of class). • Job Analysis project – more about this on Tuesday, but this will be a great opportunity to actually go and learn more about your dream job. 9 Lecture 3: Modeling & Measuring Job Performance Lecture Outline • Importance of job performance • What job performance is and what it is not • Campbell’s multidimensional model of job performance • Content versus process models of performance • Briefly touch on performance measurement, with more for next time. Considerations for Later On Think about a job you know well – being a student – and answer the following questions: 1. What does the job performance of a student look like? How would you conceptualize or model it? 2. What examples of observable behaviors would be relevant for your model? 3. If your model has multiple parts, what is the relative importance of each part, out of a total of 100%? 4. How have the job requirements of being a student changed from your entry level classes to the present? Individual Performance Matters • Individual performance drives the economy • Basic building block of all other aggregates (i.e., team, unit, organizational, country) • Nevertheless, antecedents and consequences have received more attention – Between 2008-2014, of 1,914 dependent variables in primary research articles in JAP, PPsych, and AMJ, only 350 were measures of individuals at work • Why? What is Performance Anyway? • Historically, no attempts to model performance; simply the “criterion “Ultimate” problem” criterion • Make-work fix: use measures that approximate “ultimate” criterion • “Ultimate criterion”: indicator of an Observed individual’s total contribution to the Indicator goals of the organization • Unfortunately, no such indicator exists Good Performance Criteria • Well-defined/specific • Reliably measured Theoretical • Practically useful Criterion • Relevant (i.e., valid) • No deficiency Observed – i.e., missing info Criterion • No contamination – i.e., unrelated info Concerning Models, Measures • Models are theoretical conceptualizations about the nature of reality (i.e., “latent structure”) • Measures act as an imperfect “bridge” between the conceptual and observable worlds by making the concepts into operational scales • Though models and measures are imperfect, through the research process, both are honed and they iterate towards truth Models Measures What Performance Is • Campbell and colleagues’ definition 1. Observable actions and behaviors of individuals 2. Under the control of the individual 3. Can be scaled (ranked) in degree of proficiency 4. Relevant to organizational goals • Key characteristics of definition – Flexible: behaviors, goals, proficiency levels may change over time – General: content of behaviors, goals, proficiency levels could be made more specificity What Performance Is Not • Determinants of performance – E.g., trait, state, intervention, situational characteristic variables • Outcomes of performance – E.g., sales, promotions, stock price – Effectiveness: evaluation of performance outcomes/results; but outcomes are often due to factors outside of individuals’ control – Productivity: ratio of effectiveness (output) to cost of achieving that effectiveness level (input) Campbell’s Causal Sequence Situational Requirements/ Moderators Indirect Direct Individual Outcomes/ Determinants Determinants Performance Effectiveness • Traits • Knowledge • Behavior • Effect on • States • Skills • Under other • Interventions • Motivation individual individuals • Experience •Direction control • Effect on •Magnitude • Scalable group/team •Persistence • Goal- • Effect on relevant organization • (Operate in • 8 factors real-time) Indirect Determinants 1. Traits: relatively stable, enduring characteristics over individual’s working life – Ex. Cognitive ability, personality traits, motivations, biological sex 2. States: individual characteristics that are changeable, less stable over time – Ex. Previous job knowledge and skill, education, task self-efficacy 3. Treatments: organizational interventions to increase individual performance – for performanced development; setting goals; providing rewards/pay 4. Other experience: other things that don’t fit neatly into the above categories Direct Determinants • Direct determinants all operate in “real-time”; mediate indirect determinants (example below) • Declarative knowledge: right now job knowledge • Procedural knowledge and skill: right now job skill • Motivation: right now motivation – Direction (decision to direct effort) – Magnitude (intensity of effort to put it) – Persistence (how long to put in this effort) Cognitive Job Technical Ability Knowledge Performance 8-Factor Model of Performance 1. Technical Performance 2. Communication 3. Initiative, persistence, and effort 4. Counterproductive work behaviors 5. Supervisor/manage/executive (hierarchical) leadership 6. Supervisor/manager/executive (hierarchical) management 7. Team/peer member leadership 8. Team/peer member management Factors of Performance 1. Technical Performance – Vary by substantive area (e.g., teaching) and complexity or difficulty (e.g., teaching graduate students) – Includes core interpersonal tasks, customer service – Numerous subfactors could be specified, and it could be cut into narrow or wide pieces 2. Communication – Refers to proficiency with which one conveys information that is clear, understandable, and well organized; not limited to formal communication – Two types: written and oral Factors of Performance 3. Initiative, persistence, and effort – To conform to the definition of performance, this factor must be composed of observable actions; refers to working extra hours, voluntarily taking on extra tasks, going beyond prescribed responsibilities, working under adverse conditions 4. Counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) – Behaviors that have a negative effect on the goals of the unit or organization – Two major types: interpersonal and organizational deviance – Will focus more on this factor (and OCB) in future lectures Six Subfactors of Leadership 1. Consideration/support/person-centered – Provides recognition and encouragement; supportive under stress; helpful to others with difficult tasks; building networks with and among others. Focus: Follower 2. Initiating structure/guiding/directing – Providing task assignments; explaining work methods; clarifying roles; providing tools,critical knowledge, and technical support. Focus: Follower’s responsibilities 3. Goal emphasis – Encouraging enthusiasm, commitment for goals; emphasizing mission. Focus: Group goal 4. Empowerment, Facilitation – Delegating authority and responsibility to others; allowing discretion in decision making. Focus: Group Functioning 5. Training/Coaching – One-on-one coaching and instructions on how to accomplish tasks, deal with obstacle. Focus: Follower development 6. Serving as a Model Eight Subfactors of Management 1. Goal setting, planning, organizing, budgeting – Formulating operative goals; determining how to use personnel and resources to accomplish goals 2. Coordination – Actively coordinating the work of two or more units 3. Monitoring unit effectiveness – Evaluating progress and effectiveness of units against goals 4. External representation – Representing the organization to those not in the organization; maintaining a positive organizational image Eight Subfactors of Management 5. Staffing – Procuring and providing for the development of human resources 6. Decision making, problem solving, and strategic innovation – Making sound and timely decisions about major goals and strategies 7. Administration – Performing day-to-day administrative tasks 8. Commitment and compliance – Compliance with the policies, procedures, rules, and regulations of the organization Proximal and Distal Outcomes 1 . Proximal 2. Distal effect 3 . Distal effect effects on other on group/team on organization individuals • Others’ performance • Team goal • Goal accomplishment accomplishment • Others’ • Team viability • Productivity satisfaction • Team learning & • Profit • Others’ development • Costs commitment • Return on • Others’ self- investment (ROI) efficacy • Important principle: the higher one’s position in the organizational hierarchy, the larger the potential impacts on distal outcomes Features of Performance Model • Model constitutes a synthesis of the literature • Intended to encompass individual, team member, and management and leadership performance modeling • Because sufficiently general, latent structure is essentially invariant across organizational levels, contexts, functions, sectors, and types of organizations • Invariance does not preclude varying degrees of importance for the factors as a function of the specific work role, changes in goals, or properties of the context • Does not preclude higher-order factors or subfactors Alternative Perspectives • Borman and Motowidlow (1993, 1997) • Proposed a model of job performance with two general factors, labeled a) core task performance and b) contextual performance – Task performance is the core job behaviors (e.g., selling cars, writing reports, ringing up merchandise) – Contextual performance is “doing many things that are not directly related to the main task functions” (e.g., filling the copier, making coffee, etc.) • 5 subfactors specified in behavioral terms – Support for distinction between two components Tripartite Model 1. Task/Technical Performance Task 2. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 3. (Avoidance of) counterproductive work OCB CWB behavior (CWB) 8 Adaptive Performance Areas Pulakos et al. (2000) 1. Handling emergencies or crisis situations 2. Handling work stress 3. Solving problems creatively 4. Dealing with uncertainty and unpredictability 5. Learning work tasks, technologies, and procedures 6. Demonstrating interpersonal adaptability 7. Demonstrating cultural adaptability 8. Demonstrating physically oriented adaptability Content versus Process Models • Focus has been on a model of performance content (i.e., latent structure), but performance can change • Individuals may change – Increased/decreased performance over time with same requirements • Requirements of performance may change 1. Behavioral and/or cognitive content or requirements 2. Level of performance expected 3. Conditions under which a particular level of performance is expected Complementary Models • Although content and process models differ, they are complementary • How? Changes may occur, but do so within the 8 performance dimensions • Example: – Changes in requirements of performance dimensions in the transition from a frontline employee to a supervisor Application Time In groups, discuss a job you know well – being a student – and answer the following questions: 1. Of the 8, which performance factors are relevant to the job? 2. Using the Campbell definition, give two examples of behaviors for each factor deemed relevant 3. Out of a total of 100%, what is the relative importance of each? 4. How have requirements changed across years of study? Performance Measurement • Performance measurement implies a performance model– regardless of whether the model is a good one • Different types of performance mesures available, each with benefits/drawbacks • Differences in quality within types of measures (specifically, subjective ratings) • Will deal with general issues in measurement today; performance appraisal is another topic for another lecture 3 Types of Measures • The I/O literature distinguishes between 3 different categories of performance indicators – Objective performance measures • A quantitative count of the results of work (e.g., sales) – Personnel measures •promotions, salary)e.g., absences, tardiness, disciplinary actions, – Subjective/judgmental measures • Evaluations made of the effectiveness of an individual’s work, usually made by a supervisor Objective Measures • Benefits of objective measures – Quantitative • (e.g., sales, volume moved, dollars earned, test scores achieved) – Perception of being more “hard” and objective (versus soft and subjective) in nature – Tend to be important to organizational goals and profitability – Information collected anyway, so easy to use for individual assessment Objective Measures • Drawbacks of objective measures – In general, not usually measures of performance per se, but outcomes of performance • Not actual behaviors • Not completely under individual control – Ex. Auto dealership richer vs. poorer neighborhood – Class examples – Failure to capture the nuances of actual behaviors – Tend to be rather narrow indicators Personnel Measures • Benefits of personnel measures – Quantitative (e.g., absences, accidents) – Information collected anyway, so easy to use for individual assessment • Drawbacks of personnel measures – Record of events rather than outcomes or evaluations of performance – Not actual behavior Subjective Measures • Benefits of subjective measures – Of the three types, only method that corresponds with definition of performance – Tend to be less narrow, capturing the nuances and complexity of individual work performance – 360 degree sources: self, peer, supervisor, subordinate, customer • Drawbacks of subjective measures – Time consuming; difficult to develop good measures – Rater biases (content to be discussed in depth at later date) Key T ake-Aways • Job performance is not “one thing,” but rather is multidimensional in nature • Performance should be distinguished from its determinants and outcomes • Various performance models, but most use different language to describe the same thing • Latent structure of performance is invariant, but invariance doesn’t preclude change within or across dimensions Lecture 5: Job Analysis Overview of Lecture • What is job analysis? • Job description, job specification, and linking • How to conduct a job analysis; various methods • Job analysis resources • In-class job analysis application exercise • Review of Project 1: Job Analysis and Selection Job Analysis • Job analysis is always the first step in I/O research and application –It precedes job design, recruitment, selection, and all other HR practices –Without job analysis, you cannot conduct a performance appraisal, training, or determine compensation Job Analysis • Job analysis –Process used to determine the important 1) tasks of a job and 2) the human attributes necessary to successfully performance tasks –T o develop a theory of human behavior about a particular job Many Purposes of Job Analysis • Job Description • Promotion/Job assignment • Job Specification • Job design • Recruitment • Workforce reduction/restructuring • Selection • Criterion-development • Training • Performance evaluation • Compensation • Litigation • Key idea: Job analysis provides a foundation for science and practice What is Job Analysis? • During job analysis, we specify – the work that needs to be done • duties • tasks JOB DESCRIPTION – the personal characteristics necessary to do the job • knowledge • skills • abilities • other characteristics JOB SPECIFICATION Job Description Job • A job description is composed of 2 major Duties or components: 1. Duties or activities Activities • Broad description of what the job entails. Ex.: – Establishing and Maintaining Task 1 Interpersonal Relationships – Providing customized solutions to meet client needs Task 2 Task 2 Job Description, con’t. Job • Duties and tasks are rated in terms of their centrality or Duties or impact on the job – Time spent on task Activities – Frequency of performance of task – Importance of task • Frequency of performance and importance tendk 1 to be highly correlated Task 2 Task 2 Job Description Job • A job description is composed of 2 major components: Duties or 2. Tasks Activities • Narrow list of (several hundred) tasks that compose duties. Ex.: – Analyze and modify compensation Task 1 and benefits policies to establish competitive programs and ensure compliance with legal Task 2 requirements – Plan and conduct new employee orientation to foster positive Task 2 attitude toward organizational objectives. Job Specifications • Job specifications need to reflect minimally acceptable qualifications of job incumbents – Common error; often written to reflect ideal candidate; rather need to distinguish between required and desirable characteristics • Determining characteristics required to successfully complete job tasks usually accomplished through interaction with subject matter experts (SME) – Job incumbents, or people who know job well (i.e., job supervisor) Job Specifications, con’t. • KSAO! • Knowledge – A collection of discrete, but related facts and information about a particular domain; acquired through formal education, training, or accumulated through specific experiences • Skills – Practiced acts; capacity to perform a specific task or job duty • Abilities – Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior • Other characteristics Linking Job Description and Job Specification • Essential to link KSAOs to each job duty or task Job Analysis • Establishes job relatedness – Which KSAOs are important? – How much weight to each? Identification of – Defense against allegations of KSAOs discrimination – Is the gold-standard in HR – Achieved by asking subject matter experts, incumbents Assessment of KSAOs How to Conduct a Job Analysis 1. Job Performance – Analyst performs job to get firsthand exposure 2. Observation – Observe workers, and record what, why, and how 3. Interview and Focus Groups – Used when observation or performance is impractical – Structured questions for SMEs important How to Conduct, con’t. 4. Critical incidents – Collect examples of good and bad performance – Need to collect many hundred examples – Behavior based (“behavioral vignettes”) – Use sorting procedure to categorize incidents 5. Structured questionnaires – Survey approach – Assess tasks and KSAOs required – Off-the-shelf products available How to Conduct a Job Analysis 6. Electronic Performance Monitoring – Collect information digitally about worker actions, frequency counts of actions – Can be cost effective, unobtrusive, and capable of producing detailed and accurate logs of work 7. Cognitive task analysis – For many modern technological tasks, mental processes are primary for job, but are not observable – Break tasks into measurable units focusing on mental processes and content knowlege Best Methods for Each Purpose • What the best method is depends on your main purpose for conducting the job analysis. From DOT to O*NET • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) – In 1930s, US government started program to organize jobs in economy and match applicants with job openings – In 1991, 5 edition of DOT was published; contained info about and job analyses on more than 15,000 occupations – Heavy use of task-based job analysis methods; lacked linkages to human abilities and attributes • Occupational Information Network (O*Net) – Print version became too unwieldy; in 1995, switched to digital format and began using taxonomies to organize – O*Net is a collection of 6 major databases Best Resource: O*Net (www.onetcenter.org) Experience Requirements Occupational Worker Requirements Requirements O*Net Worker Characteristics Occupation-Specific Requirements Occupational Characteristics O*Net Example (onetonline.org) • Warning: Super cool! – Easy way to spend a couple of hours. Wealth of information in the database. Application Time! • Think about a job that you know well. In groups, answer the following job analysis questions: 1. Using a task-oriented approach, describe two tasks that are important parts of this job 2. Using a worker-oriented approach, describe two tasks KSAOs needed to compete those two key tasks 3. Describe two methods of assessment that you could use to measure those two KSAOs you’ve selected. 4. Think about a job you don’t know well, but are interested in. If you did a job analysis, what are two +/- of using observation vs. interview methods of SMEs Project 1: Job Analysis and Selection • Using the observation method, the interview method, or both, you will conduct a job analysis of a job of interest. • Completed project is due at 11:59 PM on Tuesday, th April 5 • You will submit via Moodle 1 document with 4 completed sections 1. Task List & Importance Ratings 2. KSAOs for the Top 8 Important Tasks 3. Job Analysis Experience 4. Selection System Description and Justification Task List & Importance Ratings KSAOs for the op 8 Important Tasks Job Analysis Experience • What were specific difficulties or challenges you faced? • What went more smoothly or easily than you thought? • What would have been different about your job analysis if you had used a different method? • What did you learn? • What would you do differently next time? Selection System Description and Justification • Finally, based on your job analysis results, you will design a hypothetical selection system that could be used to select employees for this job • Can include as few or as many traits and/or methods as you like, so long as they are justified • We are looking for selection systems grounded in empirical evidence (e.g., content covered in class) • Important: Section 4 content has not yet been covered in class, but will in the weeks ahead. Questions? • Email us if there are any questions about the project. We are here to help. PSY 3711 Psychology in the Workplace Instructors • Brenda Ellis – email@example.com – Personality; CWB; Leadership • Jack Kostal – firstname.lastname@example.org – Cognitive ability; personality; psychometrics See syllabus for instructor office hours. Teaching Assistants • Casey Giordano – email@example.com • Jeff Dahlke – firstname.lastname@example.org • Heejun Yoon – email@example.com See syllabus for TA office hours. Welcome! • Please turn off (or silence) your cell phone and put it away. • Please use your laptop only to take notes during class. • Please participate in discussions. I will call on people if the class is too quiet during discussions. • Ask questions! If it’s not clear to you, chances are it’s not clear to others. Be brave and speak up! If you could do anything. . . • Suppose everyone had to have one job • Every job paid exactly the same wages • What would you want to do for work? – Write your name on the top of the index card – Below your name, write what job you would want – Below the job, briefly state why you would want to do that type of work. A visual example: Daisy Green A gardener I love growing plants and being outdoors. Nature fascinates me. I am happiest when I am surrounded by plants. Rate yourself • Turn the card over, and on the back... • Write down three things a person needs to be good at that job. – skills, knowledge, talents or abilities, personality traits? • Rate yourself on each of those three things – on a scale of 1 to 5; 1 = not at all and 5 = very much so. A visual example: Daisy Green Knowledge of plants. (4) A gardener I love growing plants and Patience. (2) being outdoors. Nature Not afraid of insects or slugs. (1) fascinates me. I am happiest when I am surrounded by plants. front back Turn in your index card • Make sure your full name is on the card! • This is proof that you were here today so we don’t give away your spot! The Course Syllabus • Posted on Moodle • Answers most questions you may have • Should be your first point of reference • May be subject to change (instructors will notify you if changes are made) Course website • Moodle – Go to MyU to access your courses on Moodle – On the course website, you will find: • Syllabus • Lecture slides • Additional required readings • Additional optional readings • Course Projects – Turn-it-in links for the projects • Grades Lecture Slides • Will be posted on Moodle before each class. • PowerPoint slides can be printed out and used for notes during lecture. – Not everything is in the slides! You should take notes during the lecture to supplement the information on the slides. – To do well in this course, you will need to attend lectures and take notes, complete all assigned readings, and spend some time applying what you have learned as you complete the projects. Grades Points Percent of Course Grade Exam 1 50 20% Exam 2 50 20% Exam 3 (Final) 50 20% In-Class Quizzes 25 10% Assignments/Projects 75 30% Total 250 100% Exams • A combination of multiple choice and essay questions • Generally not cumulative but understanding of previous material will often be necessary. • Final will be cumulative but will focus much more on the material after Exam 2. • Content will be from lecture and from required readings. Exam Make-up Policy • It is very important to be present for exams. • Exam dates are listed in the syllabus. • If an extreme circumstance requires you to miss an exam, you must email both instructors prior to the scheduled exam date. – If you do not contact instructors before the exam, no make-up will be allowed. • If an emergency prevents you from notifying us ahead of time, you must provide documentation indicating the date(s) and reason you were unable to take the exam. Course Projects • There will be three projects throughout the semester – Two short assignments; One larger project – More information will be provided on these very soon. • Late assignments incur a 25% grade penalty, and will only be accepted within 7 days of the due date. No exceptions. Period. • Advice: don’t wait until the last minute to complete a project. (Due dates are listed in the syllabus; plan accordingly.) Other important information • It is important that you to familiarize yourself with the information and course policies described in the syllabus. • You are responsible for knowing when readings should be completed, when projects are due, and when exams are scheduled. • Any changes to the syllabus will be posted on Moodle and announced in class. What is Psychology in the Workplace? • Also known as: – Industrial-Organizational Psychology – Work and Organizational Psychology • Often referred to as I/O psychology • I/O is the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting. – Anywhere people work • E.g., for a mission to Mars or for politicians Correction to the textbook • On page 8, the text refers to www.humworkpsy.org. This organization is now www.gohwp.org. – Global Organization for Humanitarian Work Psychology An abbreviated list of I/O topics • Employee selection • Training and development • Performance management • Applicant reactions • Leadership and management • Workplace deviance or aggression • Organizational culture and climate • Organizational change • Employee motivation • Job design and job satisfaction • Teams • And many more Where do I/O psychologists work? Public Organizations 9% Private Organizations Academic 22% 41% Consulting 24% Other 4% SIOP • Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology – www.siop.org • Great resource for: – Job/Internship postings – Information on Graduate programs – List of SIOP publications – Articles relating to I/O psychology and its application in the workplace I/O Psychology at Minnesota John Campbell Paul Sackett Deniz Ones Aaron Schmidt Nathan Kuncel Lecture 1 A Brief History of I/O Psychology Four Eras of I/O Psychology • Infancy – Late 19 century through the aftermath of WW I • Change in focus – 1930s through World War II • Rapid growth – World War II through 1960s • The cognitive revolution and modern I/O – 1960s to present Infancy: 1876 – 1930s • A new science – Wilhelm Wundt • Father of Experimental Psychology Infancy: 1876 – 1930s • Developing I/O – Hugo Munsterberg • Father of Industrial Psychology – James Cattell • Individual Differences • First mental test – Harry Hollingworth (not pictured) • Psychological effects of caffeine • Psychological tests of “shell-shock” in WW I soldiers Infancy: 1876 – 1930s • First Ph.D. in Industrial Psychology – Lillian Gilbreth, Brown University 1915 • With her husband, Frank, studied human factors and time and motion studies for efficiency • Twelve children (five of those before her Ph.D.) • “Cheaper by the Dozen”; “Belles on their Toes” Infancy: 1876 – 1930s • World War I – Walter Dill Scott & Walter Bingham • Army Alpha, Army Beta • Beginning of Journal of Applied Psychology Infancy: 1876 – 1930s • Army Alpha – A company advanced 6 miles and retreated 2 miles. How far was it then from its first position? – A machine gun is more deadly than a rifle, because it • A) Was invented more recently • B) Fires more rapidly • C) Can be used with less training – Unscramble the sentence and determine if it is true or false: happy is man sick always a Infancy: 1876 – 1930s • Army Beta – What’s missing? Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies – Experiment 1: Increase light intensity • Result: Both groups increased productivity – Experiment 2: Decrease light intensity • Result: Both groups increased productivity – Experiment 3: Lie about increase light intensity • Result: Productivity remained constant – Experiment 4: Lie about decrease light intensity • Result: Productivity remained constant • Take-aways: – Effect may have been caused by just being in the study. – People have feelings and beliefs that influence their work. – Birth of Organizational Psychology Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • World War II – Henry Murray at the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) – Selecting secret agents during the war. Group Discussion • If you worked for the OSS. . . – What makes a good spy? – How would you test to see if someone would be a good spy? Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • OSS selection procedures Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • OSS selection procedures Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • OSS selection procedures Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • OSS selection procedures Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • OSS selection procedures Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • OSS selection procedures Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Change in Focus: 1930s – 1940s • OSS selection procedures Book: Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (published in 1948). Rapid Growth: 1940s – 1960s • Post-War Boom • The Civil Rights Movement – Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Explosion of Ph.D.-level training Rapid Growth: 1940s – 1960s • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – It shall be unlawful employment practice for an employer to discriminate against an individual on the basis of: • Race • Color • Religion • Sex • National Origin Rapid Growth: 1940s – 1960s • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Discrimination practices include: • Hiring/Discharging • Compensation / Payment • Conditions of Employment / Employment Privileges • Providing References • Access to training / apprenticeships • Access to labor organizations – Established protocol for legal action The Cognitive Revolution – Modern I/O: 1960s - Present • Looking inside “The Black Box” Workplace – Behaviorism falls out of favor Interventions • Increased focus on globalization ??? • Responding to economic forces • New organizational structures • The merits and pitfalls of diversity PROFIT!!! • Validity generalization • Workplace stress, aggression, violence Trends in I/O Psychology Over Time • Changes in sample characteristics – Shen, Kiger, Davies, Rasch, Simon, & Ones (2010) • Changes in topics of study – Cascio & Aguinis (2008) • Changes in methods and statistics utilized – Taing et al. (2010) Trends in I/O Psychology Over Time • Changes in sample characteristics – Journal of Applied Psychology bibliometric study • Samples today. . . – Larger (Median = 173) – Look at multiple levels of analysis (i.e., teams, departments, organizations, cultures), not just individuals (12% vs. 88%) – Look at both students (40%) and employees (60%) – Examine both U.S. (84%), non-U.S. (14%), and mixed samples (3%) Trends in I/O Psychology Over Time • Changes in topics of study 1973 – 1982 1983 - 1992 • Human factors • Performance appraisal • Performance appraisal • Human factors • Motivation/Goal-setting • Statistics/Research methods • Statistics/Research methods • Psychometrics/Testing • Leadership • Motivation/Goal-setting Trends in I/O Psychology Over Time • Changes in topics of study 1993 – 2002 2003 - 2007 • Statistics/Research methods • Job satisfaction/Attitudes • Psychometrics/Testing • Work groups/Team • Job satisfaction/Attitudes • Performance appraisal • Performance appraisal • Org. culture and climate • Human factors • Behavior • Prediction of process and outcomes Trends in I/O Psychology Over Time • Changes in methods and statistics utilized • Journal of Applied Psychology (1997 – 2006) – Studies are increasingly complex and sophisticated • More likely to utilize newer, more complex statistical procedures: – Factor Analysis – Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) – Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) – Item Response Theory (IRT) – Latent Growth Modeling Remember! • Read Chapter 1 as soon as you can. • Read the readings for Thursday’s lecture before class! – Ch. 2, pp. 50 – 73 (3 ed.: pp. 53 – 78) • Check Moodle early and often. – We won’t normally announce the next readings. We’re doing it today in case anyone has glitches getting on Moodle. • Have a great first day of the semester! Staffing: Recruitment and Selection Staffing •The process of getting employees into jobs in the organization •Pre-hire HR practices •Consists of: –Recruitment –Selection –Placement Recruitment What is recruitment? • The purpose of recruitment is to influence attraction • Recruitment occurs at 3 stages of the pre-hire process – Generating applicants – Maintaining applicant status – Influencing job choice Why recruit? • The fundamental goal of staffing is to fill job vacancies • Selection is the best tool in the I/O toolbox to fill jobs with high quality workers • Recruitment increases the effectiveness of selection practices – Selection ratio Selection Ratio • Ratio of the number of people hired to the number of applicants (SR) – If we have to fill 3 jobs and 4 people apply there is not a lot for us to do (SR=.75) – If we have to fill 3 jobs and 300 people apply then we can be very choosy (SR=.01) – All else equal, the selection ratio has a HUGE impact on the effectiveness of a selection system • E.g., You have to pick someone to marry, you can chose from 3 people or you can choose from 300 people There are 25 applicants and 5 positions. What is the selection ratio? 1. .05 or 5% 2. .15 or 15% 3. .25 or 25% 4. .20 or 20% McDonald’s has a selection rate of .10 Burger King has a selection rate of .20 All else equal, who should have the best JP from the applicants they end up hiring? 1. McDonald’s 2. Burger King Selection ratio • L abor force population -> • Applicant population -> • Applicant pool -> • Qualified applicants -> • Offers -> • Hires • Recruitment generates the best possible applicant pool to select from – Amount of applicants – Type of applicants Employer information •3 key dimensions (Cable & Turban, 2001) –Employer familiarity –Employer reputation –Employer image (information) Recruitment source • 3 determinants of source credibility (Fisher, et al., 1979) – Trust – Expertise – Liking • Current employee referral is often more effective than formal recruitment (Weller, et al., 2009) • Most trusted: friends, job incumbents • Least trusted: interviewers Message content • More specific material is more effective – “Meaningful summer work” vs “Poverty activist” • Important for application intentions – Company culture, advancement opportunities, work itself, compensation and benefits • Important for offer acceptance – Location, company reputation, industry Recruiters and site visits • Recruiters have the potential to be more harmful than helpful – Applicants turned off by aversive treatment – Applicants interpret recruiter behavior as a signal of their chances of receiving an offer – Recruiter behavior appears most important when job is neither attractive nor unattractive • Individual treatment during visits has moderate impact on job choice Realistic Job Previews • Idea is to give applicants a balanced view of life and work in an organization by showing both the good and bad features • Applicants tend to feel more well-informed by RJP, but potentially less likely to accept – RJP should show be realistic, not pessimistic – Don’t equally weight positive and negative information Selection Personnel Selection • Personnel Selection is the study and practice of identifying the best people for a job • The bottom line impact of personnel selection is relatively easy to demonstrate, and we will spend a lot of time discussing the relative merits of different selection tools. Copyright 2015.Brenton M. Wiernik. Copyright 2015.Brenton M. Wiernik. Personnel Selection Basics • People differ in terms of the quality and quantity of work they produce • Organizations want to hire people who will produce a huge amount of near perfect work • To make a difference when selecting people for a job, we have to first learn something about them (otherwise it is just random) • We want to use information that has the strongest possible relationship with future job performance Methods and Constructs • We must be careful to differentiate between the measurement method (selection instrument) and what is actually measured – Constructs vs. operational measures • We can measure the same characteristics of individuals in a number of different ways: – Interview – Biographical information – Paper and pencil test – Simulation Methods and Constructs • The name we use for a selection measure can tell us close to nothing about what is measured – Interview • Or it can be quite descriptive – Job knowledge test • We need to consider both the measurement method and the characteristic measured to understand selection What Information ? • The information we gather, how we measure it, and the method we use to combine the information is called the “selection system” • Deciding what we want to know about a person is a critical concern for selection • We want the information to be: – Maximally Predictive (Valid) – Unbiased – Job Relevant – Face Valid – Inexpensive and Quick to Gather Where to Start? • The best place to begin is a KSAO job analysis • Then we know what about the individual is relevant for the job • Other places to start: – Previous research – Off the shelf instruments Where NOT To Start: Questionable Selection Practices • The firm handshake test • “If you could be a tree what kind of tree would you be?” • Horoscope • Graphology • Psychics Validity • The strength of the relationship between the predictor and job performance is called predictive validity • We can quantify predictive validity in a number of ways – Correlation – Number/percent of correct versus incorrect decisions – Average job performance of the selected group compared to the applicant group • Remember: Job performance is multi-dimensional – We are simplifying things for the moment by saying “Job performance” like it’s one thing Base Rates • The proportion of the applicant population that would be considered acceptable – If 9 out of 10 applicants (90%) would do an acceptable job then there is little room for improvement. – If only 1 in 1000 can do the job at an acceptable level then we still have a tough job but there is a real need for our services – If 1 in 2 applicants would be considered acceptable, then we are in an ideal situation Selection Ratio and Base Rate • Selection Ratio – Increase the number of applicants • Base rate – Increase the quality of applicants • Good selection needs both • Recruitment is designed to improve both Both Selection Ratio and Base Rate Oversimplify Reality • Selection Ratio – People don’t always apply in nice big groups. – Not everyone who gets a job offer will take it. – When might the SR be less important? • Base Rate – Job performance is not a dichotomy. Performance is a continuous variable. – Specifying acceptable versus unacceptable performance is largely arbitrary. • Job Performance Is Not One Thing Selection Ratios: Round Two • When we make personnel selection decisions we have to hire a certain number of people from a group of applicants to fill positions • Ideally we make the decision by hiring from the “top down”. Best to worst. – Example: We take the people with a 4.0 GPA first, then the people with a 3.9 GPA, then 3.8 etc. – Rare in practice. Why might this be the case? Base Rate: Round Two • Sometimes most of the people who are applying for a job are going to be competent workers (high base rate) • Sometimes most of the people who are applying for a job are not going to be very good workers (low base rate) • The base rate is the percentage of applicants who are competent workers • If the base rate is very high, almost anyone we hire will turn out to be a good worker • If the base rate is very low, almost anyone we hire will turn out to be a bad worker Correct Versus Incorrect Decisions • We make a correct decision when we (1) hire a person who turns out to be an acceptable worker OR (2) don’t hire a person who would be a bad worker • We make an incorrect decision when we (1) hire a person who turns out to be a bad worker OR (2) don’t hire a person who would have been an acceptable worker Correct Versus Incorrect Decisions • It is easier to get acceptable workers when: – Most people are acceptable to begin with (high base rate) – We can be very picky (low selection ratio) – We have a great predictor of future performance (strong correlation called predictive validity) Number of Correct Decisions • Let’s take an example – Base rate of acceptable performance is 50% – We hire 10 people from a group of 100 people (SR=.10) – Our selection system is a shiny new coin (random) – On the average, what percent of our decisions will be correct? How many of our decisions will be correct decisions? Selection Ratio: In this case we have Stronger to take a little over half of the Correlation applicants Performance Base Rate: In this case most job applicants are acceptable Predictor Weaker Cut Off For Correlation Acceptable Performance Performance Predictor Cut Off Predictor HS GPA College GPA Jane 3.90 4.00 Frank 3.80
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