Week 12 BISC 300
Week 12 BISC 300 BISC300
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jj Lynch on Monday May 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC300 at University of Delaware taught by Carlton Cooper in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Monday Notes Microbiome Predominately bacteria o Most found in gut Human microbiome is 1,000,000+ genes Body has 10x as many microbe cells as human Varies as much as 20% person to person o Human genome only varies 1% Diversity comes from microbiome Influenced by genetics and environment Microbiome-collection of genomes in the human body, including bacteria Help regulate bodily systems (integumentary, digestive, circulatory) based on what they produce 30 % of it depends on human genetics, rest is from environment (ie/ exercise, diet, stress, sleep, meds) Teaches your immune system what is good and bad Bacteria take eaten food and make short chain of fatty acids o More=better? (conflicting evidence) o Less causes inflammation, increase in endotoxins (LPS) LPS cause the inflammation by activating macrophages o Also cause plaque in arteries Microbiome during pregnancy has impact on child later o Transferred during birth Bacteria can cause colon cancer o Causes macrophages to produce free radicals that can cause damage to DNA , mutations, cancer and chronic inflammation Phagocytes are drawn to infection site by chemotaxis o Acute inflammation resolves itself normally Reduce risk od colon cancer by 50% through healthy diet and exercise Sodium butyrate (comes from fermented fiber?) causes apoptosis in human colonic tumor cell lines? Friday Notes Immune system has three lines of defense o 1 and 2 ndare nonspecific, 3 is specific st 1 -cough, sneeze, hair and reflexes, eye lashes. Chemicals: enzyme lysozyme in tears, stomach acid. Skin is barrier 2 -innate. Inflammation, fever (charges up immune cells and NK cells to make them more active) Physical barriers o Skin, mucous Chemical mediators o Acid and lysozyme Cells o Macrophages, NK cells, granulocytes Diarrhea is innate response to pathogens, flushing them out Specific defenses include lymphocytes and antibodies 1 and 2 ndlines of defense are quick and natural, 3 takes much more time Salt in sweat and tears dehydrates bacteria Skin is also chemical defense, sweat secreted lowers pH Normal bacteria is also defense o Competes with pathogens o Produces antibodies o Lowers pH Organs o Bone marrow and thymus produce B cells and T cells from lymphocytes o Cells encounter antigens in lymph nodes, antigens were flushed from organs Stem cells generate other cells Inflammation o Nonspecific, for tissue injury Response to pathogen or trauma Acute response is immediate o Redness o Warmth o Pain o Swelling o Altered function to prevent further damage
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