Islam and Early Medieval Europe
Islam and Early Medieval Europe ARTH 1305
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
April 26 2016 ISLAM The territories are the same as the Byzantine Empire Their leader is Prophet Mohammad who was an Arabian merchant Muslims (followers) means the one who submits Caliphs are the people considered successors of Mohammad They have five main functions as muslims: accept Alah as only God, pray five times a day, give the 10% of your income to the poor, read the Ramadan, and to do one pilgrimage to the Mecah at least once a year (this one is optional) Their bible is the Koran, which has 114 chapters (surash) This is a militarized religion from its birth (conquers west and east Europe) Byzantines are the ones losing territory at this period JERUSALEM, JEWISH TEMPLE This is the capital of Israel today It has the oldest mosque that survived This wasn’t the first mosque built It is holly to Christians, Jews It is considered the place of sacrifice of Abraham according to tradition This mosque has been demolished and reconstructed several times The first time it was destroyed by Nebuchanezzar and several times after it was demolished by Vespasian (Roman Emperor) During the Byzantine Empire, the zone was converted to Christianity With the conquest of the muslims with Islam, this mosque was for this religion It is made of stone, brick and wood Still stands today SECOND JEWISH TEMPLE The reconstruction of this temple is based on primary sources like archaeology and books Caliph Abd al-Malik was the first member of the Umayyad dynasty Jerusalem is considered the city of the life of Jesus according to Christians (this place is holly to Christians as well) The gold cupula intends to outshine every other near temple, marking its importance The engineers of this temple felt they needed to built something so majestic that would diminish the other Christian and Jewish temples of the region Gold has disappeared, what we see now is gold painting This was the only building in the Mediterranean which had a golden dome Centralized plan Byzantine people were hired to decorate the inside of this temple Aniconic means no representation of a person nor deity The exterior of this building has only patterns but not a single person or deity depicted at the decoration of the walls This temple was designed to protect a rock that supposedly lead Mohammad to heaven (there is literally a rock inside the temple) Interiors do not have chairs We encounter composite order at the columns of the interior of the building Most of the materials used for columns are recycled There is still nowadays the original decoration made by byzantine people inside the temple We see patterns of vines at the inside Up above inside the cupula there are little paragraphs of the Koran written GREAT MOSQUE OF DAMASCUS This is a true mosque Longitudinal building The entrance is located at the center Caliph al-Walid I built this temple, he was the son of Adb al-Malik This temple was too occupied by various civilizations long before the Romans Interior of this building is decorated with mosaics Treasury of Damascus is located at the center of the courtyard Ablution is the process of preparation for praying (washing your hands and feet) Arcaded courtyard means the courtyard is surrounded by the arches, in this building’s case, the arches have a double order Some mosaics on the exterior of the building have survived Prosperity is represented inside the building by patterns of a jungle and vegetation, showing the richness of paradise if entering to heaven Inside there are columns of the Corinthian order You will never find images of people at these temples (aniconic rules) Mihrab is the elemental thing in every mosque, it points to the direction of the Mecah (you always have to pray in this direction) Gilba is the proper word for referring to the direction of the Mecah Minbar is the ceremonial and highly decorated staircase Imam is the proper name for the person who is directing the prayings, he is the leader of the congregation In the year 711, Islam conquers Spain Cordova becomes the major capital of Islam inside Spain (this city was the largest in the Middle Ages world). This was the center of development where mathematical calculations began improving (algebra. Physics, medicine, philosophy, etc.). Civilizations living in this area began adding this math to the architecture of the time GREAT MOSQUE Al Rahman I was the man who built this mosque. He was a Umayyad who managed to escape from the persecutions of this time and he got refugee at Cordova The hypostyle plan of the buildings are modeled copying the house of Mohammad Maqsura is the place of the private praying of the caliph The maqsura indicates the direction of the Mecah (gilba) There is no representation of a person at this mosque There are mathematical features at the arches and voussoirs inside the mosque All material from the interior is recycled The ceiling is built from brick and stone The yellow and red colors at the arches inside assimilate the sky (heaven) and the darkness of the shafts of the columns assimilate the dark earth Only the caliph can enter to his maqsura The entrance of the maqsura has highly stylic columns and it is made to look fancy April 29 2016 EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE The barbarians were located at the Western Europe In 476 AD, many tribes began occupying Europe There was a chaos at the time of the fall of Rome (more than 500 tribes arrived) This is the time when France, England nations were formed This is the beginning of the development of Europe At first, the tribes were illiterate Later it was that these tribes learned how to write and they converted to Christianity Germans are just an ethnicity at this time Dark ages refers to the low point in arts, knowledge, population, literacy, culture, etc. There is a return of humanity to the ancient times WEST STOW These are Germanic villages Germans came from the forest They didn’t know how to carve ESCOMB CHURCH There were certain exceptions with churches This is a stone structure The stone is grabbed from Roman structures Spain was the exception for architecture development SAN JUAN BAUTISTA They somehow learned how to carve Converted the stones they founded to blocks EAGLE FIBULA Germanic people usually carved objects from the forest (not representation of people) Natural things are their paganism (unlike Greeks’ paganism) They believe certain objects had special powers (rocks, fibulas, etc.) Germans were a tribe with no classes Visagoths were the tribe who built this fibula We are now approaching the movement of abstraction BELT BUCKLE The only things surviving from this early age is objects made out of metal This buckle is made of metal Anglo-saxons were the Germanic group who crossed to England and established themselves there (they were a distant group) At England, you would then encounter many kingdoms and one would eventually dominate the others (monarchy) and it would establish a capital EAST ANGLIA Sutton Hoo is the name of the ship which was found on land (wood had disappeared) This was an excavation from 1939 The tradition was to bury the king with all of his belongings (including ships) Sometimes sacrifices were made PURSE COVER It is made of gold decorated with precious stones this is high quality work there are three main displays in the cover: two beasts on the sides and two eagles attacking their respective ducks we see interlacing patterns there is a truly inspiration of the forest abstraction at its totality geometric simplicity seen at the animals GOLDEN BUCKLE this was probably an object used by the king patterns are seen as serpents ROYAL HELMET This was a warrior helmet Metal work Nose and eyebrows are in form of a dragon VIKINGS IN SCANDINAVIA When we say Vikings we refer to the people living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden This were the terrors of Europe They spoke a different language originated from the German This is a culture which had no contact with the Greeks or the Romans Incredible warriors, sellers, ship builders OSEBERG VIKING LONGSHIP Ship 70 ft long Rests of women bodies were found inside Vikings were the first in crossing the waters to other states and cities There is a theory the fist in discovering America was actually a Viking (not confirmed) This is a high quality work (extremely fine) ANIMAL-HEAD POST Made of wood We don’t know its purpose We see the interlacing pattern We found this object at the Oseberg ship (it must have been important enough to be buried there) Vikings were the last to convert to Christianity STAVE CHURCH This is the best preserved church in Scandinavia It is built out of gigantic trees The arches are referring to the Christian architecture Germanic building tend to be vertical because they are influenced by the natural world (forest); since forest is vertical, their buildings are vertical Gorgons at the top of the building are there to scare the devil and protect the building IRELAND This zone was never colonized by the Romans Celtic people were the tribe which was never conquered who lived here (Eastern Europe) Scotland and Ireland remained celtic Saint Patrick was born in England. He traveled to England in order to bring his message of Christianity and he was converted into a slave; he then converted his prosecutors and from there, he converted the rest of the population. He and his successors managed to success at the message. We know he really existed because of two letter written by him (which prove existence). Interesting artworks are from the Irish people These artworks were mostly made by priests Monasteries became important from Christians in Ireland Saint Columba was the man who decided to convert Scotland to Catholicism Picts are the ancient people from Scotland Iona Abbey was the zone founded in 563, this was the place destined for convertion of the Scotland people SKELLING MICHAEL Clochans are the little houses where the monks lived as poor and humble people This was a nasty place Monks attempted to give the message of ideal life to enter to the heavens (humble and poor life were the ideals) CARPET PAGE This is a gospel book It was made by monks Its size is smaller than a normal page This is one of the earliest codices 248 folios in total includes four gospels there is a portrait page of each gospel as the introduction of the gospel itself truly celtic art (portrait of Matthew) this is abstract art SAINT MATTHEW Simple and geometric image This is not a figural representation Merely flat CELTIC FIGURE We still don’t know the gods of mythology of the Celtic people Face is depicting a deity (we are not sure of this) We don’t know who is depicted here OTHER SAINT MATTHEW This is an irish manuscript It is a full page composition Categorized as Evangelistic portrait There are words written in Greek and latin This is evidence the Irish people had contact with works of naturalism (ancient Roman tradition) because Matthew is wearing toga There is a 3D space Toga seems to follow rules of gravity Gospel means witness in Greek CROSS-INSCRIBED This is a cross (literally) There are celtic decorations There are hidden figures of animals This was the entertainment (to look at this and find the hidden animals) HIGH CROSS OF MUIREDACH This belongs to the Irish culture Monumental sculpture It is made of wood originally By 5 century, this was carved out of stone These crosses had three main purposes: 1. To mark boundaries between territories or church property, 2. Devotional objects which one could pray for in local mass, 3. Reference to a miraculous place This was later converted to abstract motiphs, these were sometimes the other type: narrative crosses (with inscriptions from the Bible) West side of the cross is depicting crucifixion CAROLINGIANS Their empire was ruled by a dynasty The first one was Charles Martel (Charles the hammer), he got defeated by the Islamic people along with franks His son, Pepin the short, was the second to rule Charlemagne (Charles the great) was the third man in the dynasty. He was extremely tall, commited catholic, he managed to convert the kigdom into an empire (brilliant general). He made Aachen the capital of the empire He carried title of Augustus He was the first emperor and in 800 he was wounded. He was a holly roman emperor who established own currency BATTLE OF TOURS (732) This was a battle between catholics and islamics Catholics won EQUESTRIAN STATUE We don’t know who he is We see Carolingians are reviving classicism This is the first Renaissance
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