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by: Jessica Lynn

MANA CH. 15 MANA 3318

Jessica Lynn

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About this Document

Chapter 15 Notes
Organization Behavior
Dr. Baldwin
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Lynn on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MANA 3318 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Baldwin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Organization Behavior in Business at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
Tuesday, May 3, 2016 Chapter 15 Organizational Design and Structure - Organizational Design the process of constructing and adjusting an organization’s structure to achieve its • business strategy and goals - Organizational Structure • the linking of departments and jobs within an organization - Contextual Variables • a set of characteristics that influence the organization’s design processes - Size - the total number of employees • the formalization, specialization and standardization are greater in larger organizations as size increases, complexity increases • - Technology - tools, techniques, and actions by an organization to transform inputs into outputs - Environment - anything outside the boundaries of an organization task environment - the part of the environment that is directly relevant to the • organization • environmental uncertainty - the amount and rate of change in the organization’s environment - Strategy and Goals - provides legitimacy to the organization, employee direction, decision guidelines, and criteria for performance • helps the organization fit into its environment - Key Organizational Design Processes • differentiation - the process of deciding how to divide the work in an organization - four dimensions • manager’s goal orientation 1 Tuesday, May 3, 2016 • time orientation • interpersonal orientation • formality of structure - three forms • horizontal - degree of differentiation between organizational subunits • vertical - difference in authority and responsibility in the organizational hierarchy • spatial - geographic dispersion of an organization’s plants and personnel • integration - process of coordinating the different parts of an organization - supports dynamic equilibrium, in which all the parts of an organization are interrelated and balanced • vertical - hierarchal referral - when employees do not know how to solve a problem, they can refer it upward for consideration and resolution - rules and procedures/plans and schedules - provide standing information for employees without direct communication • employee handbook - communicate to employees standard information, or information they can understand on their own - positions added to the organization structure - when a manger becomes overloaded by hierarchal referral or problems in the chain of command - management information systems • horizontal - liaison role - when a person in one department or area of the organization has the responsibility for coordinating with another department - task forces - temporary committees composed of representatives from multiple departments who assemble to address a specific problem affecting these departments - integrator - has the ability to get people together to resolve differences within the perspective of organizational decisions 2 Tuesday, May 3, 2016 - teams - cut across existing lines or organizational structure to create new entities that make organizational decisions - Structural Dimensions • formalization - the organization has official rules, regulations, and procedures • centralization - decisions are made at the top of the organization • specialization - jobs are narrowly defined and depend on unique expertise • standardization - work activities are accomplished in a routine fashion • complexity - many different types of activities occur in the organization • hierarchy of authority - vertical differentiation across levels of management - Structural Configurations • simple structure - centralized form of organization that emphasizes a small technical and support staff, strong centralization of decision making in the upper echelon, and a minimal middle level • machine bureaucracy - moderately decentralized form of organization that emphasizes a support staff differentiated from the line operations of the organization, limited horizontal decentralization of decision making, and well- defined hierarchy of authority • professional bureaucracy - decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the expertise of the professionals in the operating core of the organization • divisionalized form - loosely coupled, composite structural configuration composed of divisions, each of which may have its own structural configuration • adhocracy - selectively decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the support staff and mutual adjustment among people - Forces Reshaping Organizations • organizational life cycles - differing stages of an organization’s life from birth to death • globalization - organizations operate worldwide rather than in just one country or region • changes in information-processing technologies 3 Tuesday, May 3, 2016 • demands on organizational processes - Four Symptoms of Structural Weakness • delay in decision making due to the hierarchy being overloaded with too much information • poor quality decision making due to information linkages not providing the correct information to the right person in the right format • lack of innovative response to changing environment, especially when coordinated effort is lacking across departments • high level of conflict as some departments work against one another rather than for the strategies and goals or the organization as a whole 4


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