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General Psychology Week One

by: Polley Poer

General Psychology Week One Gen Psych 10213

Polley Poer


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These are the first notes of the class, including popular psychologists and their major contributions to the field.
Introductory Psychology
Gregory Repasky
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Polley Poer on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Gen Psych 10213 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Gregory Repasky in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to the field of Psychology WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? ¡ Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes ¡ Behavior is any action we can observe and record: § Smiling § Laughing § Writing § Walking ¡ Mental processes are the internal subjective experiences we conclude from behavior: § Sensation, Perception, Dreams, Thoughts, Feelings, Beliefs PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ¡ Psychology relies on empirical evidence § Evidence that can be objectively tested and evaluated ¡ Be leery of “ psuedopsychologies ” § Psuedo = false § E.g. horoscopes, psychic powers, pop psych A BRIEF HISTORY ¡ Wilhelm Wundt, 1879, Germany § ‘Father of Psychology’ § Established first psych lab § structuralism: first framework for studying psychology; use of introspection to study sensation and perception, or basic building blocks of mental life ¡ Edward Titchener § Student of Wundt who brought structuralism to the US § Structuralism faded away due to its inability to study animals, children, and ________ FUNCTIONALISM ¡ Functionalism: how the mind functions and allows animals/humans to _____ to the environment ¡ Established by William James § Father of American Psychology § Expanded psychology research to include ________ and observable behavior § Began psychological testing PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE ¡  The unconscious part of the mind has thoughts, memories, and desires that lie _______ personal awareness but have a strong influence ¡  Sigmund Freud, _______, late 1800 - early 1900 BEHAVIORIST PSYCHOLOGY ¡  Field that believes that scientific investigation of psychology should be focused only on _____________________ ¡  Founders of Behaviorialism : §  Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) §  Classical Conditioning §  Pavlov’s dogs §  John B. Watson (1878-1958) §  _________ Conditioning §  Little Albert and learned emotions §  B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) §  Operant Conditioning §  Skinner box HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY ¡  Stresses a person’s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose his or her destiny, and positive qualities ¡  Humanists say that our subjective perceptions of the world are more important than behavior itself ¡  Founded by Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ¡ Focuses on the important role of _______ _______ in how we process information, develop language, solve problems, and think. ¡ _____ Neisser (1928- ) coined the term “cognitive psychology” as the study of information processing ¡ Developed novel ways to study mental processes § Stroop Task § Priming POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ¡ Scientific study of the strengths and ______ that enable individuals and communities to thrive ¡ Martin Seligman, PhD – Authentic Well Being; Positive Psychology Center at University of Pennsylvania ¡ Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi , PhD - ____ GENDER AND MINORITY INFLUENCES ¡  Mary Calkins: completed requirements for her PhD under William James at Harvard, but was denied her degree because of her gender §  Prominent memory researcher §  First female president of APA in 1905 ¡  Margaret Floy Washburn: first female to receive a PhD in psychology ¡  Francis Cecil Sumner: first African American to earn a PhD in psychology in 1920 ¡  Kenneth B. Clark: student of Sumner’s, became first African American president of APA; prejudice researcher BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL ¡  No one perspective on psychology can __________ explain the complex human condition Biological Psychological Social CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY ¡  Study of how cognitive processes ____ ______ different cultures §  Which cognitive processes are _________ and which are specific to different cultures? CULTURE ¡  Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people ¡  Transmitted from one ___________ to the next COLLECTIVISM AND INDIVIDUALISM Collectivism Individualism ¡  Strive for _____ advancement ¡  Strive for __________ ¡  Sacrifice ____ for the sake of achievements ¡  _____ independence the group/family success ¡  Typically _______ cultures ¡  Typically _______ cultures THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY TYPESOFRESEARCH ¡  Basic research: focuses on fundamental principles and theories to advance core scientific knowledge §  Classical and operant conditioning principles explain human and animal behavior ¡  Applied research: designed to solve practical, real-world problems §  Behavior modification research uses operant conditioning to change behavior and treat psychological disorders THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD WHY USE THIS METHOD? ¡ Allows for the same process/procedure to be used across experiments ¡ Easy for others to test and reproduce your findings ¡ Helps maintain scientific integrity across fields ¡ Steps that emphasize unbiased pursuit of knowledge JUDGMENTAL OVERCONFIDENCE ¡ We tend to think we know more than _____________ ¡ 82% of U.S. drivers consider themselves to be in the top 30% of their group in terms of safety ¡ 81% of new business owners felt they had an excellent chance of their business succeeding; but reported that their peers’ businesses only had a ___ chance of success ¡ Our judgments should be based on testable evidence, not assumptions or popular opinion SCIENTIFIC METHOD ¡ Theory § An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observation ¡ Hypothesis § Testable prediction § Often implied by a theory ¡ Statistical significance demonstrates that a study’s results did not occur by chance. PSYCHOLOGY’S 4 MAIN GOALS ¡ Description: what occured ¡ Explanation: why something occurred (examine ______) ¡ Prediction: under what conditions is the phenomenon like to occur again? ¡ Control: how to increase desired outcomes and decrease negative outcomes RESEARCH METHODS Descriptive Correlational Experimental DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH ¡ Systematic, scientific observation and description ¡ 4 main types § Naturalistic observation- “bird watching” without interfering § Survey/interview- taking surveys § Case studies- small number of subjects § Archival research- going back and doing analysis on top of any of these other three from the past DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Naturalistic Survey/Interview ¡ Observe and record ¡ Ask people to report behavior in a natural behaviors, opinions, setting, without and attitudes interference ¡ Companies asking you ¡ Watching the feeding to rate their services habits of birds in a field DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Case Studies Archival Research ¡ In-depth study of small ¡ Using previously number of participants ¡ Observing the progression recorded data of an illness in a single ¡ Use of information from patient previous sessions of the other three types ¡ Time and resource intensive (ex. Studying your friend’s behavior; rare disease affecting only one person, study the whole person) CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH ¡ When two variables are rlated , a change in one is accompanied by a change in the other ¡ Can make inferences about one variable based on known changes in the other ¡ For example, are older individuals happier than younger individuals? § In a study of 5,000 individuals in the U.S., as age increases, happiness increases § Positive correlation between age and happiness CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS ¡ Quantify the relationship between variables ¡ Used in measurement to estimate the reliability and validity of a test ¡ Range of -1.00 to +1.00 (perfect positive correlation) ¡ Higher the number, stronger the relationship ¡ The sign (negative or positive) indicates the direction of the relationship ¡ Used with other research ¡ How two things relate CORRELATION ¡ Positive Correlation § A high score on one variable is associated with a high score on the second variable § The more you study, the higher your GPA ¡ Negative Correlation § A high score on one variable signifies a low score on another variable § The more you miss class, the lower your GPA INTERPRETING CORRELATIONS ¡  Correlation Coefficient: statistical number showing direction and strength of relationship between two variables ILLUSIONARY CORRELATION ¡  The presence of a correlation does not imply causality ¡  Another variable might explain the changes in the first two §  Ice cream (when it’s hot out) consumption and murders (when it’s hot out people get irritable) CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSALITY ¡ You cannot always assume that a positive or negative correlation is the cause of the direction of the relationship; other variables can impact the degree of the relationship § The more you study, the higher your GPA But studying more may not be the cause of your higher GPA §  IQ, familiarity with the subject, even organization could cause the higher GPA EXPERIMENTAL RSEARCH ¡ Experiment § A research method in which the investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable) while controlling other relevant factors by random assignment of subjects § What happens to the D variable is dependent on the I variable EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ¡  Required to determine causation ¡  Main components of experimental research: §  Independent variable- what you manipulate §  Dependent variable- looking for effect of what you manipulate §  Experimental group- where you change something §  Control group- no manipulation, comparison group §  Random assignment- randomly deciding ex. And control groups EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ¡ Independent variable is manipulated ¡ Dependent variable is observed and measured ¡ Experimental group receives the manipulation ¡ Control group does not receive the manipulation ¡ Random assign ensures that the change in the DV is due to the IV, not some characteristic of the group EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ¡  Experimental Condition §  Condition of an experiment that exposes subjects to the treatment (the altered version of the IV) §  Giving plant food (treatment) to Plant A, in addition to sunlight and water ¡  Control Condition §  Condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment §  Members of this condition receive no extra treatment, and serve as a comparison for the other group(s) §  Plant B is given only sunlight and water. Now you can compare the growth of Plant A and Plant B to see the effect of plant food RESEARCH STRATEGIES ¡  Independent Variable §  Experimental factor that is manipulated §  Variable controlled by the experimenter ¡  Dependent Variable §  Experimental factor that may change in response to the manipulations of the independent variable §  In psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process §  Variable that is measured §  The outcome of the experiment EXAMPLES OF DESIGNS Which is the Independent Variable and which is the Dependent Variable? Dr. Smith examines how daily exposure to a sun lamp (one hour of exposure or no exposure) impacts people ’s depression levels in the wintertime. 1.  Exposure to the lamp (Independent) 2.  Depression level (Dependent) EXAMPLES OF DESIGNS Which is the Independent Variable and which is the Dependent Variable? Does age of a child (4, 5, or 6) influence when children can learn to read? 1.  Age of child (Independent) 2.  Learning to read (Dependent) EXAMPLES OF DESIGNS Which is the Independent Variable and which is the Dependent Variable? Does amount of time spent hanging out at the Bottom impact the amount of new friends you meet? 1.  New friends (Dependent) 2.  Time at the Bottom (Independent) CONTROLLING FOR BIAS: SAMPLING ¡  Identify the population you want to study ¡  The sample must be representative of the population you want to study ¡  Need a random sample! CONTROLLING FOR BIAS ¡ Random Assignment § Assigning subjects to experimental and control conditions by chance § Minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups § Controls for bias TYPESOFCONTROLS ¡  There are a few other ways to control for bias §  Placebo: inactive substance to prevent false positive results from treatment condition (tell them they’re getting something that’s not fake but you are §  Single-blind study: participants do not know which group they are in §  Double-blind study: neither the researcher nor the participants know group assignments SUMMARY OF RESEARCH METHODS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CORRELATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ¡  Correlation §  Identifies variables and looks for the relationship between them §  Can predict just a relationship, cannot predict the cause for changes §  Cannot predict cause and effect because of the possibility of outside variables ¡  Experiment §  Tests the effect that an independent variable has upon a dependent variable §  Can predict cause and effect Ask yourself: Did the researcher cause the difference/change? If the answer is YES, then it is probably an experiment ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS ¡  The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is considered the ethics police. They make sure that everyone who conducts research follows ethical guidelines ¡  Ethical Guidelines: §  Obtain Informed Consent: obtain permission from the participant whom they want to study after the participant knows what the study involves and the risks and benefits of participating §  Protect participants from harm and discomfort §  Protect confidentiality §  Provide complete debriefing: reveal to participants any information that was withheld during the study ETHICAL GUIDELINES ¡  The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approves or denies permission for studies involving animals ¡  Nonhuman animals are used in only 7% to 8% of psychological research (mostly rats and mice) ¡  Evidence is considered regarding: §  Protection from pain §  Alternatives to using animals §  The clinical and scientific merit of the study PSYCHOTHERAPY CLIENTS ¡  Therapists must maintain a license ¡  Therapy records are confidential ¡  Therapists are legally bound to break confidentiality if the client threatens harm to self or others, or is suspected of abusing a child or elderly person FINAL THOUGHTS ¡ Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes ¡ There are many branches of psychology: behaviorism, psychoanalytic, cognitive, humanistic, positive, and more… ¡ Research includes descriptive, correlation, and experimental methods ¡ Research is grounded in ethical practices for human and animal subjects


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