Reading: Hock 33 - Choosing Your Psychotherapist
Reading: Hock 33 - Choosing Your Psychotherapist APSY.UE.0002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Reading: Hock 33 - Choosing Your Psychotherapist 1997 Mary Lee Smith and Gene Glass compelled virtually all the studies on psychotherapy eﬀectiveness and reanalyzing them Selected 375 studies that tested the eﬀect of counseling and psychotherapy Applied meta-analysis to the data from all the studies to determine overall relative eﬀectiveness of diﬀerent methods Theoretical Propositions Goals To identify and collect all studies that tested the eﬀect of counseling and psychotherapy To determine the magnitude of the eﬀect of therapy in each study To compare the outcomes of diﬀerent types of therapy When this meta-analysis was complete, psychotherapy would be shown to be eﬀective and diﬀerences in eﬀectiveness of the various methods could be demonstrated Method each study examined at least one group that received psychotherapy compared with another group that received a diﬀerent form of therapy or no therapy at all (control group) the eﬀect of therapy was obtained for any outcome measure of the therapy that the original researcher chose to use The average age of the participants : 22 years Participants received an average of 17 hours of therapy from therapists that had on average 3.5 years of experience Results compared all the treated participants with all the untreated participants The average client receiving therapy was better oﬀ than 75% of the untreated controls Only 12% if the 833 eﬀect sizes were negative if psychotherapy were ineﬀective, the number of negative eﬀect sized should be equal to or greater than 50% Various measures of psychotherapy eﬀectiveness were compared across all the studies Compared the various psychotherapy methods found in a ll the studies they analyzed using similar statistical procedures Combines all the various methods into two “superclasses” of therapy behavioral superclass consisting of systematic desensitization, behavior modiﬁcation, and implosion therapy non behavioral superclass remaining types of therapy When they analyzed all the studies in which behavioral and non behavioral therapies were compared with no-treatment controls, all diﬀerences between the two superclasses disappeared Discussion psychotherapy appeared to be successful in treating various kinds of problems no matter how the diﬀerent type of therapy were divided or combined, the diﬀerences among them were found to be insigniﬁcant Smith and Glass drew 3 conclusions 1. psychotherapy works 1. people who seek therapy are better oﬀ with the treatment than they were without it 2. the results of research demonstrate negligible diﬀerences int he eﬀects produced by diﬀerent therapy types. Unconditional judgements of the superiority of one type or another of psychotherapy…are unjustiﬁed 3. the assumptions researchers and therapists have made about psychotherapy’s eﬀectiveness are weak because the relevant information has been spears too thinly across multitudes of publications research using similar techniques deserves further attention Implications and Subsequent Research an increase in therapists’ willingness to take an eclectic approach to helping their clients, meaning that in their treatment practices they combine methodologies from several psychotherapeutic methods and tailor their therapy to ﬁt each individual client and reach unique problem 40% of therapists consider themselves to be eclectic The most important consideration when choosing a therapist may not be the type of therapy at all but, rather, your expectations for psychotherapy, the characteristics of your therapist, and the relationship between therapist and client. Recent Applications A study to asses the eﬀectiveness of group therapy in treating depression authors conducted a meta-analysis of 48 studies on group therapy and depression and found that, on average those receiving treatment improved signiﬁcantly more than 85% of an untreated comparison group group therapy was concluded to be “an eﬃcacious treatment for depressed patients. However, little empirical work has investigated what advantages group therapy might have over individual therapy” Various behavioral treatments for people who suﬀer from recurrent migraine and tension headaches were studied used meta analysis compared 30 years of studies of relaxation training, biofeedback, and stress- management interventions Found: 35% to 50% reduction in the headaches studied with behavioral strategies alone The authors suggest that if behavioral therapies for chronic headaches can be made more available and less expensive, more doctors, as well as their patients, might opt for non drug treatments. A study examined the eﬀectiveness of psychotherapy for individuals who are mentally retarded Their meta-analysis examined studies with widely varying research methodologies, styles of psychotherapy and characteristics of the clients. results revealed a moderate, yet signiﬁcant degree of beneﬁt to clients with mental retardation.