Underworld CLAS 160D2
Popular in Topics in Culture and Civilization, Classical Mythology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Classical Studies
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Borgstadt on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 160D2 at University of Arizona taught by Teske in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Topics in Culture and Civilization, Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of Arizona.
Reviews for Underworld
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 05/03/16
Chthonic(sacrifice(to(the(spirits(of(the(dead( 0! The(witch(Circe(tells(Odysseus(how(to(empower(the(spirits(of(the(underworld(to(speak( to(him( 0! Odysseus(digs(a(pit(with(an(opening(of(1(cubit(by(1(cubit,(he(then(pours(in(milk/honey,( wine,(water(sprinkled(with(barley,(and(the(blood(of(2(black(sacrificed(sheep.(When(the( spirits(drink(the(concoction,(they(are(energized(and(draw(back(their(wits(so(they(can( answer(Od’s(questions0(he(keeps(away(some(by(brandishing(his(sword( 0! Contrast(with(a(typical(sacrifice(to(the(gods(with(the(fumes,(knisa,(rising(into(the( heavens( Dismal(nature(of(existence(in(underworld(( 0! Achilles’(spirit(says(to(Odysseus(that(he(would(rather(be(a(slave(to(a(peasant(on(earth( than(be(lord(of(the(dead.(( 0! But(the(bleakness(of(Homer’s(underworld(helps(us(to(understand(the(importance(of(the( early(Greek(notion(of(kleos(“glory(or(renown”0(the(best(thing(a(man(could(hope(for(is( that(he(would(be(remembered(for(his(great(exploits(on(earth.(Kleos(then(provides(a(man( with(a(kind(of(limited(immortality(( Odysseus(speaks(to(Elpenor(( 0! Elpenor(dies(by(falling(off(a(cliff(in(a(drunken(haze.(He(asks(Odysseus(to(go(and(give(him( a(proper(burial.(( 0! The(gods(could(be(angry(if(a(man(was(not(properly(buried,(but(even(a(symbolic(burial( with(a(handful(of(dirt(tossed(on(the(corpse(could(be(enough(to(allow(the(spirit(to(cross( over(into(the(inner(part(of(the(underworld.(( Eternally(punished(sinners(in(the(underworld( 0! Tantalus0(served(his(son(Pelops(to(the(gods,(so(he(was(punished(by(being(surrounded(by( food(and(drunken(which(he(could(not(reach0(forever(tantalized( 0! Tityus0(tried(to(rape(Leto;(he(was(shot(down(by(Apollo’s(arrow,(and(stalked(to(the(floor( of(the(underworld(where(2(vultures(feasted(on(his(regenerative(liver(( 0! Sisyphus0(“ratted”(on(Zeus,(or(chained(up(Thanatos;(he(is(forced(to(roll(a(boulder(up(a( hill0(when(it(reached(the(top,(it(rolls(back(and(he(must(start(again(( 0! Ixion0(attempted(to(rape(Hera;(Hera(complains(to(Zeus(but(he(does(not(believe(her(so(he( fashions(a(cloud(in(Hera’s(likeness(and(Ixion(mates(with(the(cloud;(he(is(punished(by( being(strapped(to(a(revolving(wheel(which(is(on(fire((From(this(union(of(Ixion(and(Cloud( came(a(man(Centaurus(who(then(mated(with(some(mares(and(created(the(race(of( centaurs)(( 0! 49(Danaids0(murdered(their(husbands(on(the(wedding(night;(they(are(compelled(to(fill( leaky(jars(with(water(from(the(River(Styx.(( System(of(Justice(in(the(Underworld( 0! Minos(of(Crete(judges(the(souls,(as(does(Rhadamanthus(and(Aeacus,(each(of(whom(had( been(noted(for(their(justice(as(kings(on(earth( 0! Hades,(of(course(rules(the(underworld0(his(name(was(believed(to(mean(“the(unseen( one”(or(“the(invisible(one”.(His(titles(include(Zeus(Chthonius(“the(Zeus(of(the( earth/underworld”(and(Pluto(“Wealth”(( 0! The(Erinyes((Furies)(as(avenging(agents(also(issue(forth(from(underworld(to(pursue(and( destroy(those(who(spill(family(blood((snaky(hair,(dark(garments,(weeping(tears(of(blood( over(their(victims,(generally(vampiric,(etc.)(( Major(Rivers(of(the(Underworld( 0! Styx0(“River(of(Hate”0(Charon(ferries(the(souls(across(who(can(pay(the(toll,(the(obol,(the( Greek(coin(showing(they(were(properly(buried0(bodies(were(buried(with(the(coin( between(the(lips.(Cerberus,(the(3(headed(hound(of(Hell,(is(the(guardian(on(the(farther( shore( 0! Archeron0(“River(of(Woe”( 0! Cocytus0(“River(of(Wailing”( 0! Phlegethon0(“River(of(Fire”((surrounding(Hades’(palace)( 0! Lethe0(“River(of(Forgetfulness”(( Another(kind(of(afterlife((Elysian(Fields)( 0! In(book(4(of(the(Odyssey,(Menelaus(is(told(by(Proteus(of(a(paradise(at(the(world’s(end( where(a(few(chosen(heroes,(like(himself,(will(come(to(reside( 0! This(idea(of(a(heaven0like(place(of(reward(will(be(elaborated(in(the(succeeding(centuries,( with(a(grand(version(of(the(Elysian(Fields(( Vergil’s(book(6(in(Aeneid(( 0! Rtojan(hero(Aeneas(eventually(arrives(in(western(Italy(and(consults(the(Sibyl(of(Cumae( at(Apollo’s(temple( 0! Aeneas(is(told(to(bring(back(the(golden(bough(as(proof(of(his(worthiness(to(enter(the( underworld.(How(does(he(obtain(it?(Aphrodite((his(mother)(sends(two(doves(to(the( golden(tree(and(he(is(able(to(break(of(the(branch((with(difficulty)(( 0! The(Sibyl(becomes(Aeneas’(guide(to(the(underworldp( 0! The(entrance(is(near(the(temple(and(is(open(24/7(( 0! First(Sibyl(explains(the(nature(of(the(apparitions(of(the(mythic(monsters( 0! Then(Aeneas(and(the(Sibyl(approach(the(river(Styx(and(see(the(mass(of(souls(and(she( tells(him(about(the(restless(souls(of(the(unburied(who(cannot(yet(pay(Charon(and(be( ferried(across(to(the(other(side.(Charon(allows(them(in(the(boat(because(he(understands( the(gods(want(Aeneas(there.(( 0! (When(Aeneas(gets(in(the(boat,(it(almost(sinks(because(he(is(a(live(person.(( 0! They(cross(to(the(further(shore,(encounter(Cerberus(and(throw(him(drugged(honey0 cakes(to(seduce(him( Division(of(soula( 0! Infants( 0! Wrongly(executed((who(will(be(re0judged(by(kind(Minos)( 0! Suicides( 0! Jilted(Lovers((Field(of(Mourning)(Here(Aeneas(sees(queen(Dido(of(Carthage,(who(had( killed(herself(after(Aeneas(hastily(abandoned(her( 0! Heroes(( Fork(in(the(Road( 0! The(citadel(of(Tartarus(is(encircled(by(3(fortification(walls,(and(Phlegethon,(the(river(of( fire0(Trisphone,(one(of(the(Furies,(is(upon(the(ramparts(with(her(whip,(and(is(overseeing( the(punishments(of(the(sinners(within( 0! The(Elysian(Fields(is(underground,(just(down(the(street(from(the(place(of(the(damned.(It( has(its(own(sun,(grass,(and(flowers,(good(weather(and(good(times.(The(residents(amuse( themselves(with(sports(and(music.(( o! Aeneas(sees(his(father(Anchises(and(tries(to(embrace(his(spirit0(then(Aeneas(asks( about(the(significance(of(the(souls(lining(up(at(the(river(Lethe(( Notion(of(the(Orphic(cycles( 0! 10(Orphic(cycles(of(1000(years(each( 0! Each(cycle(consists(of(about(100(years(of(existence(on(earth(followed(by(about(9000( years(of(purification(in(the(underworld( 0! At(the(end(of(each(cycle,(the(soul(drinks(from(the(river(Lethe,(forgets(past(experiences( and(is(reborn(into(a(new(body(on(earth( th 0! At(the(end(of(the(10 (cycle((after(10,000(years)(the(souls(drinks(one(last(time(from( Lethe,(forgets(all(past(experiences,(and(the(soul(ascends(to(be(reunited(with(the(Divine( Aether.(Ideas(of(reincarnation(and(metempsychosis(“the(transmigration(of(souls”(