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Pol 101, April 26 and 28

by: Michaela Musselman

Pol 101, April 26 and 28 Pol 101

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Liberal Arts > Pol 101 > Pol 101 April 26 and 28
Michaela Musselman
GPA 3.35

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Political science notes for April 26 and 28
Introduction to American National Government
Heather Ondercin
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Musselman on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pol 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Heather Ondercin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American National Government in Liberal Arts at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 05/03/16
Check Your Knowledge  What is the job of a conference committee?  What is congressional oversight? Congress: Differences between House and Senate Organization and Party Control  House Leadership o Speaker of the House (currently Paul Ryan)  Constitutional position, elected by the House  Speaker controls all legislation to come to the House o Majority leader  Makes sure the party is organized o Majority Whips  Keeps the party whipped into shape  Convinces members of the party to vote like the party wants them to o Minority leader (currently Nancy Pelosi)  Face and voice of the minority party in the House  Serves as clear opposition to majority party  Senate Leadership o President of the Senate  This is the vice president  Supposed to preside over the Senate  Breaks ties with their vote o President Pro Tempore (Currently Orin Hatch)  Constitutional position, awarded to member of senate with the longest consecutive record of serving  Third in line for the presidency, after the vice president o Majority leader (currently Mitch McConnell)  Voice of the majority in the Senate  Has some control over the calendar  Mostly just has access to the media o Minority leader (currently Harry Reid) Implications of Leadership  House o More formal and hierarchal o Stronger potential for party control o Increased power in the hands of the majority party and speaker of the house  Senate o Less formal and hierarchal o More powerful minority party Nature of the Debate  House o Rules Committee o Increase the power of the majority party  Senate o Filibuster o Cloture  A vote of 60 senators to stop a filibuster o Filibuster weakens leadership and party influence o Also lessens the role of committees The Presidency Power and the Presidency  Failure of the Articles of Confederation highlighted the need for a Chief Executive  The founders had a fear of too much power in the hands of a single individual after experience with Monarchy  How powerful is the president? o Enumerated powers  Administrative head of the nation  Commander of the military  Veto legislation  Appoint various officials  Make treaties  Grant pardons  Modern presidency o inherent powers of the presidency o leadership o expectations gap Power and Modern Presidency  Power to persuade: A president’s ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration’s agenda. Presidents use their presidential personality to persuade  Going Public: President’s strategy of appealing to the public on an issue, expecting that public pressure will be brought to bear on other political actors Checks on Presidential Power  Formal Constitutional checks o Supreme Court o Congress  Impeachment  Over-ride veto  Confirm appointments  Informal Checks o War Powers Act 1973  Response to increased presidential power over the military and foreign policy  President shall consult with Congress in “every possible instance” before introducing troops to US hostilities  Emergency: tell Congress within 48 hours. Troops are deployed for 60 days and then must be brought home within 30. Check Your Knowledge Answers Finding the differences between two bills proposed in the Senate and the House Part of a larger system of Checks and Balances in which congress oversees the executive and especially the bureaucracy. Check Your Knowledge  What is the one reason the minority party has more power in the senate than in the House?  What ae the enumerated powers of the president?  What is the president’s power to persuade? Checks on Presidential Power  Presidential Approval o Popular presidents can get stuff done; unpopular presidents cannot o Crisis events  Rally around the flag: increased presidential approval when the US is threatened, attacked, or involved in military conflict  Very temporary spike in presidential approval that allows the president to take action o The economy is closely linked to presidential approval  The better the economy, the higher the approval ratings, generally  Media acts as a watchdog Bureaucracy  Bureaucracy: larger, complex organization in which employees have specific job responsibilities and act within a hierarchy of authority  What does the bureaucracy do? o Administer laws o Make policies  Natural competence: An effort to depoliticize the bureaucracy by having work done by professional personnel o Patronage or spoils system  Things are largely gained through having contacts o Civil service  Pendleton Act of 1883  Established that positions within the federal government can only be awarded based on merit instead of political affiliation  Hatch Act 1939  Established that certain people in positions in government cannot participate in politics Different Types of Agencies  Departments o State department, education department, department of homeland security, etc o The heads of departments are secretaries that make up the president’s cabinet o The president appoints the secretaries and the senate approves  Independent agencies o Federal Election Commission, Social Security, etc o Usually controlled by a single head appointed by the president  Independent Regulatory Boards or Commission o Security and Exchange Commission, food and drug administration, etc o Set up to be independent of politics  Government corporations o US postal Service, Tennessee Valley Authority o They carry out these responsibilities for the government to make things accessible to citizens o Designed to be independent of government Bureaucracy  Administrative Discretion: The high degree of freedom that agencies have in developing regulation to implement laws  Implications o Administrators have more expertise than representatives o Conflict between political appointees and civil service o Regulatory commissions and boards rely on the industries they’re regulating  Who is in charge of the bureaucracy o President (elected): Technical leader o Secretaries (appointed) o Director of Agencies (Appointed) o Career civil service members  What check are there on the bureaucracy? o Congressional oversight o Media o Interest groups Limitations to Checking the Bureaucracy  Bureaucratic culture o Policy Commitment o Adoption of Bureaucratic behavior o Specialization and expertise o Identification with the agency  Whistleblowers Check Your Knowledge Answers  The filibuster  Powers specifically stated in the constitution  The president has a power, largely through their personality and position, to get people to do what they want


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