Reading: Hock 25 - Are You The Master Of Your Fate?
Reading: Hock 25 - Are You The Master Of Your Fate? APSY.UE.0002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Reading: Hock 25 - Are You The Master Of Your Fate? Researcher: Julian Rotter (behavioral therapist) proposed individuals diﬀer a great deal in terms of where they place the responsibility for what happens to them External locus of control when people interpret the consequences of their behavior to be controlled by luck, fate or powerful others Internal Locus of Control if people interpret their own choices and personality as responsible for their behavioral consequences Believed locus of control to be an important part of your personality Theoretical Propositions Rotter proposed to demonstrate two main points in his research through comparing behavior of “internals” with that of “externals” in various contexts 1. predicted that a test could be developed to measure reliability the extent to which individuals posses an internal or an external locus of control orientation toward life 2. people will display stable individual diﬀerences in there interpretations of the causes of reinforcement in the same situations designed a scale containing a series of many pairs of statements Each pair consisted of one statement reﬂecting an internal locus of control and one reﬂecting an external locus of control The participant was told to choose the statement they strongly believed in - could not choose neither or both The scale, after reliability and validity tests, contained 23 items Asses were 6 “ﬁller items” designed to disguise the true purpose of the test Rotter called his test the I-E Scale (I for Internal and E for External) Then, he reported on several studies in which scores on the I-E Scales were examined in relation to revealed signiﬁcant correlations between I-E scores and people’s behavior in many diverse situation (gambling, political activism etc.) Results Gambling Reported on studies that looked at betting behavior in relation to locus of control Findings: Individuals identiﬁed as internals by the I-E Scale tended to prefer betting on “sure things” & liked moderate oﬀs Externals would wager more money on risky bets tended to engage in the gambler’s fallacy - betting more on a number that has not come up for a while on the basis that tit is “due” when the true odds of it occurring are unchanging) Persuasion Rotter used the I-E Scale to select two groups of students, one highly internal and the other highly external Each group was asked to persuade other students to change their attitudes about the fraternity and sorority system on campus Findings: the internals were found to be signiﬁcantly more successful than externals in altering the attitudes of others Other studies demonstrated that internals were more resistant to manipulation of their attitudes Smoking Two studies found: smokers tended to be signiﬁcantly more external than nonsmokers individuals who were able to quit smoking after the original surgeon general’s warning appeared on cigarette packs in 1996 were more internally oriented externals and internals believed the warning to be true Achievement Motivation A study of 1,000 high school students nouns a positive relationship between a high internal score on the I-E Scale and achievement motivation Achievement-oriented factors were more likely to be found in those students who demonstrated an internal locus of control Conformity Participant’s willingness to agree with a majority’s incorrect judgement was evidence of conforming behavior Participants were allowed to bet on the correctness of their judgements Findings: those found to be internals conformed signiﬁcantly less to the majority opinion and bet more money on themselves when making contrary judgements than did the externals Discussion Rotter posed three potential sources for the development of an internal or external orientation cultural diﬀerences socioeconomic diﬀerences variations in styles of parenting One study found diﬀerences in locus of control among various cultures (Ute Indians, Mexican Americans and Caucasians) Individuals of the Ute heritage were, on average, most external Caucasians were the most internal Mexican Americans scored between the other two groups on the I-E Scale Findings were independent of socioeconomic level Studies suggest that a lower socioeconomic position predicts greater externality Styles of parenting were implicated by Rotter as an obvious source for our learning to be internal or external suggested that parents who administer rewards and punishments to their children in ways that are unpredictable and inconsistent would likely to encourage the development of an external locus of control No supportive research oﬀered by Rotter the inﬂuences on behavior produced by the internal-external dimension are such that it will inﬂuence diﬀerent people to behave diﬀerently when faced with the same situation Rotter contended that locus of control can be measured and the I-E Scale is an eﬀective tool for doing so Rotter Hypothesized: Those with an internal locus of control are more likely than externals to gain information for the situation in their lives in order to improve their future behavior in similar situations take the initiative to change and improve their condition in life place greater value on inner skill and achievement of goals be more able to resist manipulation by others Subsequent Research 1966: Rotter : How locus of control might relate to health behaviors 1977: Strickland: found that individuals with an internal focus generally take more responsibility for their own health more likely to engage in more healthy behaviors practice greater care in avoiding accidents studies have found that internals generally have lower levels of stress and are less likely to suﬀer from stress-related illness Research has shown Parents of children who are internals tend to be aﬀectionate, more consistent and fair with discipline, and more concerned with teaching children to take responsibility for their actions Parents of externally oriented children have been found to be more authoritarian and restrictive and do not allow their children much opportunity for personal control Sims and Bauman applied Rotter’s theory to explain why more people have died in tornadoes in Alabama than in Illinois the death rate from tornadoes was 5X greater in the south than in the Midwest Ruled out all obvious environmental reasons Questionnaires containing modiﬁed versions of Rotter’s I-E Scale were administered to residents of four counties in Illinois and Alabama that experienced a similar incidence of tornado-caused deaths Found the respondents from Alabama demonstrated a signiﬁcantly greater external locus of control than did those from Illinois less conﬁdent in themselves as causal agents less convinced of their ability to engage in eﬀective action Researchers concluded that an internal orientation promotes behaviors that are more likely to save lives in the event of a tornado (paying attention to the news) stems directly from the internals’ belief that their behavior will be eﬀective in changing the outcome of the event Recent Applications Study in the Journal of Psychology and Religion used various locus of control scares and sub scales participants were assessed on their degree of internal locus of control, perceived control by powerful others, belief in chance and belief in “God control" If a person has an external locus of control, as measured by Rotter’s scale, but the external power is perceived as a strong faith in a supreme being, he or she will be less subject to the typical problems associated with externals One study examined various studies employing animal research, human clinical studies and near imaging suggested the the human desire for control is not learned, but is an evolutionary, survival mechanism, passed down to us genetically the authors proposed that without the belief in your ability to make choices your perceive as producing the best outcome for you, there would be little motivation to face any challenge in your life at all, including choices that help to keep you healthy and safe from danger. Explains why when freedom to choose is taken - the result is ranging form profound depression to extremes anger and aggression A study from Russian researchers examined locus of control and right-wing authoritarian attitudes in Russian and American college students Results indicated that among the U.S. students, greater internal locus of control was correlated with higher levels of authoritarianism, while no such connection was found for the Russian participants. Another study relied on Rotter’s I-E Scale to examine the psychological adjustment to the diagnosis of cancer in a highly superstitious, collectivist culture ﬁndings indicted that “even in a culture where supernatural beliefs are widespread, an internal locus of control related positively and chance beliefs relate negative with adjustment to a serious illness such as cancer" Rotter’s research has been cited in research on: PTSD, issues of control and aging, childbirth methods, hoping with anticipatory stress etc.
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