Lecture: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Lecture: Treatment of Psychological Disorders APSY.UE.0002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 05/03/16
Lecture: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Therapy Psychotherapy Trained therapist uses psychological techniques “learned” disorders Biomedical Therapy A prescribed medication or medical procedure Biologically-inﬂuenced disorders Therapists using biospychosocial approach draw on a variety of techniques. 50% of psychotherapists take an eclectic approach They draw from a number of diﬀerent psychological techniques. Psychoanalysis Known as an insight therapy - in gaining more knowledge of the core of the disorder, patients learn more and take more responsibility. Presumes that healthier, less anxious living becomes possible when people release the energy they have previously devoted to id-ego-superego conﬂicts if you stop putting so much energy in id-ego-sugerego conﬂicts, you will be able to manage that much better with every day living Freud relied on free association for clues about what is going on in the unconscious Clients spontaneously expressed their thoughts and feelings as they occurred Want client to talk as freely as possibly without censorship Analysts will then study the free association for clues of what is going on in the client’s mind Blocks in the ﬂow of free association indicate resistance They hint at some kind of anxiety that is lurking beneath the surface They are clues that the individual is resisting from saying something embarrassing/uncomfortable Psychoanalyst is not looking for what the client is saying, but what the client is not saying Another clue to the unconscious is latent content of dreams Freud believed - our dreams are our way to express our feeling and desires that would not be appropriate in a social setting Humanistic Therapies Seek to boost self-fulﬁllment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self- acceptance Humanistic Therapies and Psychoanalysis both fall under the umbrella of insight therapies Assume as self-awareness grows, your problems will go away Humanistic Therapies Psychoanalysis Focus on the past Focus on the present and future (understanding repressed feelings) Explore feelings as they occur Achieve insight into origins of feelings Explore conscious thoughts Explore unconscious thoughts Taking responsibility (client is in control of life/how client deal Uncovering hidden determinants with situations) Promoting Growth Curing Illness Client-Centered Therapy Developed by Carl Rogers Focuses on the person’s conscious self-perceptions Non directive therapy The therapist’s role is to listen, without judgement, directing client to particular insights The client is in the driver’s seat Therapists are encouraged to exhibit three main traits that will help individuals on their path to growth Genuineness Dropped their facades and acted “real" Acceptance unconditional acceptance Empathy Accept client’s feelings Key Principles include Active listening Seeking clariﬁcation of what client expressed Acknowledging what the client expressed Unconditional positive regard Being a caring, accepting a non-judgmental attitude toward the client Client will be able to accept who they are because they will feel valued as a person, with their failings included and will feel whole. Active Listening has been an accepted part of therapy - regardless if they fully ascribe to a humanistic approach Behavior Therapies Someone might be highly aware of their faults, but it will help them in no way Look toward the application of learning principles to eliminate behavior problems Maladaptive symptoms are learned behaviors that can be replaced by constructive behaviors Counter-conditioning pairs the trigger stimuli (whatever causes the problematic behavior) with a new response to replace it Exposure Therapy Goal is to expose people that to what they might normally avoid Aversive Conditioning Most widely used form of exposure therapy is systematic desensitization The goal of systematic desensitization is to substitute a positive response for a negative response to a harmless situation The goal of aversive conditioning is to substitute a negative response for a positive response to a harmful situation Cognitive Therapies Cognitive therapies assume that our thinking colors our feelings The focus is on teaching people new, more constrictive ways of thinking Cognitive therapist Aaron Beck sought to reverse clients’ catastrophizing beliefs Cognitive-Behavior Therapy aims to alter the way people think and the way they act Become aware of irrational, negative thinking Replace it with new ways of thinking Practice a more positive approach in everyday setting Thoughts aﬀect behavior and emotions Emotions aﬀect behavior and thoughts Behavior aﬀects thoughts and emotions Goal of CBT is to change thoughts so you can change your behavior and emotions Biomedical Therapies Psychopharmacology refers to the study of drug eﬀects on mind and behavior Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and others forms of severe thought and disorders Side eﬀects include sluggishness, tremors and twitches Long-term use can produce tardive dyskinesia a condition involving involuntary movements of facial movements, the tongue and other muscles Long term /side eﬀects can result in a vicious cycle. People will feel like they cannot function in society with such severe side eﬀects and they feel like they have been ‘cured’ so they get oﬀ their meds/mess with the dosage. Resulting in them going back to their main symptoms /disorder Anti anxiety drugs are used to control anxiety, tension, and agitation Often used in combination with psychotherapy Get at the core of what is causing the anxiety, eventually the client does not need tot are the drugs Antidepressant drugs are used to treat depression, as well as anxiety OCD is often treated through antidepressant drugs 11% of women and 5% of men in the U.S. take antidepressants
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