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CMN3 Week 4/5 Notes: Verbal and Non Verbal Communication

by: Chelsea Supawit

CMN3 Week 4/5 Notes: Verbal and Non Verbal Communication CMN3

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > Communication > CMN3 > CMN3 Week 4 5 Notes Verbal and Non Verbal Communication
Chelsea Supawit
GPA 3.778

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About this Document

Week 4/5 notes for Interpersonal Communication at UC Davis with Virginia Hamilton.
Interpersonal Communication
V. Hamilton
Class Notes
cmn3, Interpersonal, communication, UC, Davis, UCD, verbal, Nonverbal
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Supawit on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMN3 at University of California - Davis taught by V. Hamilton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
1. Verbal Communication •The goal of communication is shared meaning. •Language is an agreed upon shared code that is used to transfer meaning from one human to another. •Signs and symbols are meaning vehicles. •Symbols are used to intentionally transfer meaning from one source to another. •Signs are unintentional, naturally occurring events. Types of meaning •Intended meaning: What to speaker intends to express. •Denotative meaning: The objective, agreed-upon meaning of a word. The dictionary definition. •Connotative meaning: The psychological, idiosyncratic meaning an individual experiences with the word. •Interpreted meaning: The final content the receiver ends up with. The Cooperation Principle • Paul Grice proposed that there is a general cooperation principle that guides senders in conversation. •Communication partners need to help each other in order to have an effective conversation. •The cooperation principle is the assumption that sender’s guarantee relevance and receivers assume relevance. •In other words, we go into a conversation expecting the other person to make a good faith effort to produce meaningful messages. •When meanings are ambiguous, this puts extra “work” on the receiver to find the intended meaning Conversational Maxims (Paul Grice) • There are maxims/rules that (should) guide the sender’s communication process. •Although we typically try to abide by these maxims, we very often don’t. When the maxims aren’t followed, it puts extra effort on the part of the receiver to determine why. •Quantity maxim. One’s utterances should be as informative as is required, no more and no less. We shouldn’t talk too much or not enough. We “flout” this maxim when we are perceived as curt or overly verbose. •Quality maxim. One’s utterances should be accurate and truthful. We violate this maxim when we lie, deceive, exaggerate, embellish, distort, or omit “known truths”. • Relevance maxim. Stay on topic • Manner maxim. Non offensive, polite. Obliges socially appropriate Verbal Clarity • Use all levels of abstraction. (Outlining!) •When details matter be more specific/less abstract. •When details matter less, be less specific, a bit more abstract. •When details really don’t matter, be abstract. Nonverbal Communication Introduction •Nonverbal codes are clusters of behavior that are used to convey meaning. •Nonverbal communication consists of all those message that people exchange beyond the words themselves. •How much meaning is conveyed through nonverbal codes? •It depends. •Nonverbal is better for expressing emotions and other functions listed below. •Verbal is better for facts and information Functions •Expressing emotion •Manage impressions (senders) and form impressions (receivers) •Defines and manages relationships •Structures interactions Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication •Nonverbal behaviors are omnipresent. •Nonverbal behaviors are multi-functional. •Some nonverbal codes are universal. •Can be ambiguous. •Nonverbal communication is trusted more than verbal communication. Nonverbal Communication Codes Facial Expressions •Highly salient and meaningful of all the nonverbal codes. We focus on faces. Has the greatest encoding (what senders do) and decoding (what receivers do) potential of all the nonverbal sources. •We manage and control our facial expressions to fit with appropriate social requirements. •Smiling is a universal code of “goodwill” and thus a very important nonverbal code that is on the face. (Although, it can mean other things as well.) Eye Behavior •Eye contact. Direct eye contact is essential to be perceived as competent, credible, and trustworthy. •Eye gaze. Is a form of intimacy. Connects people. People with strong feelings toward one another will hold longer gaze than those who don’t know or don’t care for each other. •Staring. Used in threatening situations and when someone interests us. •Pupil dilation. When the room is dark or we feel physiologically stimulated our pupils dilate (deception, attraction) Posture •We perceive people with strong postures to be strong, self-confident, and credible. •Convicted rapists report that they are more likely to attack people with weak postures, because they perceive them to be less likely to put up a fight Gestures •Emblems translate into a precise verbal meaning. •Illustrators depict a visual image of what is being said. •Adaptors release/relieve physical or psychological tension •Self •Other •Object Vocalics—The Voice •Every single sound that comes from the voice is considered a nonverbal source. •Including snorting, sneezing, laughing, whispering, crying, moaning, giggling, bellowing… •Vocalics, second to the face, is a highly salient and meaningful source of nonverbal meanings. Proxemics •The study of physical distance between people as a form of communication. •We move closer to people we know better or when the topic is personal. •We move farther away from people we know less well or when the topic is of a professional, impersonal nature. •Cultures vary in how close they like to stand next to one another when conversing. •People in North America tend to prefer greater distances. Haptics/Touch •The study of touch as communication. •Touch is essential for infants and young children to grow and thrive into a healthy, well-adjusted human being. •Children who were denied touch can develop severe health problems. •Touch enhances health and longevity in older people; although as we grow older we receive less and less touch. Chronemics •The study of time as communication •People show their superiority, position, and power by using other people’s time and by not following the same time rules as others.


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