African American Studies Final Notes
African American Studies Final Notes AAS271
Popular in Introduction to African American Studies
Popular in African American Studies
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexus Hill on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AAS271 at Clayton State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to African American Studies in African American Studies at Clayton State University.
Reviews for African American Studies Final Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 05/04/16
African American Studies N OTES F OR FINAL Civil Rights Jim Crow- Southern laws passed in the late 19Th century that kept Blacks in their subordinate position. 1896- Plessy v. Ferguson- Separate but equal. “Institutionalization of White supremacy”(Schaefer, 208). White primary- Legal provisions forbidding Black voting in election primaries, which in one-party areas of the South effectively denied Blacks their right to select elected officials. Restrictive covenants-Private contracts or agreements that discourage or prevent minority- groups members from purchasing housing in a neighborhood. Sundown towns- Communities where nonwhites were systematically excluded from living. De jure Segregation- Children assigned to schools specifically to maintain racially separated schools (214). Lloyd Gains vs Canada (1938) Attorney Charles Houston trained Black civil rights lawyers at Howard University. Marshall graduated from Howard law school in 1933. Houston retired from NAACP and Marshall assumed position of chief counsel and head of the newly created NAACP Legal Defense and Education fund, which increasingly focused on school desegregation. Won Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. Served on the U.S. Court of Appeals (1961-1965) before President Lyndon Johnson appointed him to Supreme Court (first African American/retired in 1991). No single person has done more to advance the legal and civil rights of African Americans. Linda Brown’s family wanted her to attend school closer to her home; however, it was segregated and designated for white children only. Case became central in the NAACP’s push to desegregate schools (one of four to find their way to highest court by fall of 1952). Thurgood Marshall presented the case by using the work of psychologist Kenneth Clark who argued that Black children were psychologically scarred by segregation (doll tests) and felt inferior. Court voted in the favor of Marshall; however, ordered desegregation “with all deliberate speed” in the hands of district courts. Needless to say, desegregation became an ongoing struggle in 1950’s and 1960’s. Civil disobedience- promoted by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., January 15, 1929- April 4, 1968 (SCLC-Southern Christian Leadership Conference-1957), as the belief that people have the right to disobey unjust laws under certain circumstances (216). -Active nonviolent resistance to evil -Not seeking to defeat or humiliate opponents but to win their friendship and understanding. -Attacking the forces of evil rather than the people who happen to be doing the evil . Boycotts Started as an effort to undermine Jim Crow politics and end racial segregation throughout the city. Rosa Parks refused to give up seat on segregated bus and community boycotted bus system. First successful boycott in US took place in Baton Rouge, LA in 1953 (Rev. T.J Jemison). “A city law that would make it possible for Negroes to sit from back toward front, and whites from front toward back until all the seats are taken. That Negroes not be asked or forced to pay fare at front and go to the rear of the bus to enter. And That buses stop at every corner in residential sections occupied by Negroes as they do in communities where whites reside. ...Please consider this plea, and if possible, act favorably upon it, for even now plans are being made to ride less, or not at all on our busses. We do not want this. Respectfully yours, The Women’s Political Council. Jo Ann Robinson, President” John Lewis One of the most important leaders of the Civil Rights movement. Born in Troy, Alabama and attended segregated schools in Pike county. Attended Fisk University. Dubbed and recognized as one of the “Big Six” leaders of the Civil rights movements (Dr. King, James Farmer, A. Phillip Randolph Whitney Young, Roy Wilkins) in 1963. Was Chairman of SNCC from 1963-1966. At age 23 was also a keynote speaker of March on Washington. Medgar Evers Evers attempted to enroll in U of M’s law school but was denied admission. His case attracted the NAACP, which hired him as the organization’s first field secretary for Mississippi. Spoke out against racism on television in 1962 and was targeted by white supremacists. In 1963 Medgar Evers began a full scale, directaction campaign to force downtown Jackson, MS, to desegregate. The mayor, Allen Thompson, went on television to intimidate Blacks to not participate. On June 12, 1963, Evers was shot in his front yard as he returned home. Byron de la Beckwith was tried twice to no avail until 1994 when he was convicted. MFDP Alternative to MS’s “Jim Crow” Democratic Party. MFDP wanted to challenge the seating of an all white delegation at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City by arguing that the MFDP delegates belonged to the only freely chosen party in the state (because Blacks had been denied access to choosing delegates). Fannie Lou Hamer gave speech on the MFDP’s behalf. Eventually, the MFDP rejected the poor offers but remains one of the most powerful examples of grassroots organizing during the Civil Rights movement. Hamer, “sick and tired of being sick and tired” Schools 1955- “Little Rock Nine” led by Daisy Bates set out to desegregate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Gov. Orval Faubus announced that he would send National Guard to prevent them from entering school. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to disrupt the local resistance. James Meredith (served in Air Force)-University of Mississippi (1962). Governor Ross Barnett appointed himself registrar at the university to make sure Meredith could not register. Kennedy was forced to address the violence on television the day Meredith registered. George Wallace George Wallace, governor of Alabama (1963-1967, 1971-1979, 1983-1987), said that he would “stand in the schoolhouse door” to prevent public school segregation. On June 11, 1963, Wallace stood in the way to prevent Vivian Malone and James Hood from registering at the University of Alabama even though National Guard was on hand to enforce their admittance. He refused to “willingly” allow them to enter the university. Consequently, President Kennedy addressed the nation on television that same day and stressed that he would push Congress to enact strong civil rights legislation. Important Acts Civil Rights Act (1964) – racial segregation unconstitutional. Voting Rights Act of 1965. Black Power Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little in Nebraska, was a very intelligent street hustler who converted to the Nation of Islam while in prison. Malcolm became the voice and face of the NOI during the late 50s and early 60s until the two parted ways. Malcolm’s concern for African Americans has been undermined in the history books due to his radicalism. Malcolm argued for a ‘Black Nationalism’ in the tradition of Marcus Garvey, which included pride in being Black and ownership of Black organizations and institutions. Black Panther Started in Oakland, CA by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale as a vanguard movement for the protection and assertion of the Black community. Newton and Seale were heavily influenced by Malcolm X’s teachings and attempted to apply them to community organizing by “the brothers on the block”(Newton). Resistance to Black Power COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program)-Series of covert and often illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to disrupt political and social organizations in the United States (1950s-1970s). The agency insisted that its aim was, “Protecting national security, preventing violence, and maintaining the existing social and political order." J. Edgar Hoover- President of FBI during these operations. Fred Hampton Born in 1948 in Chicago, Illinois. Very gifted student who became active in the NAACP early in his life. Deputy Chairman (national) of Illinois chapter of Black Panther Party. Worked with street gangs in Chicago to curb violence and Black on Black crime/hatred. Worked closely with and organized breakfast programs, education classes, and police patrol of BBP. FBI opened a file on Hampton in 1967 and began investigating him and his group. He was perceived and deemed an “agitator” by Hoover and his associates. FBI Brought in William O’ Neal to infiltrate the Chicago chapter of the BBP in exchange for dropping felony charges against him. In November of 1969 O’Neal provided the FBI with detailed information of Hampton’s apartment, including the location of Hampton’s bedroom furniture. December 3, 1969- With several Panthers sleeping over, Hampton’s apartment was raided in the early morning hours by Chicago police. Panther Mark Clark (who was sleeping in the front room) was killed instantly. Hampton was ambushed as his bedroom was specifically targeted by the gunfire. After the raid, the FBI and Chicago police orchestrated a cover-up of the events. Cook County State’s Attorney Edward Hanrahan said, “We wholeheartedly commend the police officers’ bravery, their remarkable restraint and discipline in the face of this vicious Black Panther attack” No one was ever prosecuted for the killings, but suspicions remained. In 1982 the survivors of the raid and the families of the deceased settled with the city, county, and federal governments for $1.85 million. Hampton’s death remains one of the most visible and violent government sanctioned murders on an innocent American citizen. Police raids became common and the party headquarters and homes of Panther leaders in numerous cities were raided. Elaine Brown first woman to head BPP but last leader. BPP eventually fell apart. Legacy of Party and ‘Black Power' lives on…