FSHN 150 notes upto week 16
FSHN 150 notes upto week 16 FSHN 150
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 150 at Colorado State University taught by John Wilson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
fat soluble vitamins 04/20/2016 ▯ Vitamins Water soluble (9 total) o Not stored o Excess is lost in urine o Vit C (1) and Vit B (8) o Consume often since they get excreted o Limited storage o Nutrients can be lost in cooking o Deficiencies are more common o Functions as a co enzyme Fat soluble o Stored Needs fat to be stored Goes where fat goes o A,D,E,K o Are not readily excreted o Can be toxic (A,D) o Get absorbed along with fat in chylomicrons o < 10 g/ day impairs absorption o have plenty of storage deficiency is rare concern if you can’t store enough fat soluble vitamins ▯ Characteristics of Vitamins Help facilitate energy yielding Yield no energy Essential Organic Used for medical applications in large quantities ▯ Vitamin A Important for epithelial cell growth Preformed (toxic) o Animal products and build up in liver o Retinoids Active part of vitamin A Pro- vitamin o Carotenoids Beta carotene activated Can be converted to vitamin A o Found in plant products ▯ Deficiency of Vitamin A Night blindness o Beginning indicator that you are deficient o reversible Without vitamin A eye cannot adjust to light and dark Xeropthalmia o Second stage of Vit A deficiency o Eye loses the ability to produce mucus Helps protect eyes Can lead to infections and blindness o Permanent affect ▯ Functions of Vitamin A Skin growth Eye sight Growth development o Without can lead to birth defects o Stunted growth Plays a role in protein synthesis Helps protect against cancer Permanent liver damage Increase levels of Vitamin A can cause birth defects ▯ ▯ Water Soluble Organic Supply no energy Readily excreted Mostly absorbed in smile intestine ALL B vitamins o Functions as coenzymes ▯ Deficiency of B Vitamins Rare in US Developing countries Elderly B vitamins lost in milling o Removing of fiber o Other nutrients get lost High biological value ▯ Thiamin – B1 Release energy from CHO Most exceed by 50% RDA o 1.2 mg at risk o low income and older adults surplus is rapidly lost in urine o non toxic major sources o enriched grains o legumes, seeds ▯ Deficiency of Thiamin Call beriberi o 10 days of deficiency starts the development unable to metabolize glucose (CHO) seen in areas where rice is a staple and polished o white instead of brown ▯ Riboflavin (B2) - yellow Energy yielding metabolic pathways Deficiency o Deficient in riboflavin deficient in other water soluble vitamins RDA o Average intake is slightly above RDA o Non toxic Major sources o Milk (best source) o Enriched cereals Pellagra o 4 D’s o caused by a deficient Riboflavin diet o dementia, Diarrhea, dermatitis, and death o enrichment act of 1941 ▯ Niacin RDA o 14-16 mg intakes are about double the RDA o becomes a drug o upper level 35 mg headache, itching, flushing ,liver, and GI damage o major sources meat and fish goods enriched grains o deficient areas with corn as their staple ▯ Pantothenic Acid “from every side” meat, milk, mushroom, liver adequate intake is set no deficiency ▯ Biotin Metabolism of CHO and Fat Help break down certain amino acids Adequate intake is set Major sources o Liver, egg yolks, yogurt, nuts Intestinal synthesis of biotin ▯ Pyridoxine (B6) Above RDA Athletes may need more Homocysteine (CVD) o The new cholesterol PMS (over the counter drugs) o Not a reliable treatment Low dose may reduce symptoms Toxicity potential o Large doses found in supplements can cause serious toxicity symptoms o Irreversible o Upper level 100 o major sources meat, fish, whole grains not enriched back ▯ Folate or Folic acid Key role o DNA synthesis o Along with B-12 Deficiency o Megaloblastic anemia o At risk Pregnant women Preterm infants- rapid cell division ▯ Megaloblast Normal cell division requires BOTH folate and B12 ▯ Neural Tube Defects Are NOT true folate deficiency symptoms Necessary for neural tube closure ▯ RDA for Folate 4,000 ug/ day men 320 women 220 Food sources of Folate Folate; neutral ▯ Vitamin B-12 Most important in folate metabolism Deficiency o Can cause a secondary folate deficiency Only found in animal ▯ At Risk for B-12 Vegans Elderly Breast fed infants of vegan mothers Stored in liver NOT TOXIC Vitamin C Water soluble antioxidant Synthesized by most animals (not by humans) o Animals synthesize A LOT Decrease absorption with high intakes Excess excreted 200 is the cut off for absorption by humans excess excreted into urine ▯ Functions of Vitamin C (KNOW) Antioxidant o Decrease risk of CVD, cancer o Water soluble o Reactivate vitamin E Iron absorption Immune functions Collagen synthesis (MOST IMPORTANT) Deficiency of Vitamin C Scurvy o Deficient for 20-40 days o Fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhages o Bleeding gums, bone pain, fractures Who is at risk? o People who eat poorly ▯ RDA for vitamin C 90 mg/day for males non toxic ▯ ▯ Water Water is regulated but NOT stored Muscle contains 73% water ▯ Electrolytes Ions are minerals that have electrical charges – called electrolytes Where sodium goes water follows (know) Ions: the amount of water in each compartment mainly ▯ Fluid balance is Controlling the electrolyte concentration o “where ions go water is sure to follow o ex: drinking sea water movement of water from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution osmosis o movement of water from less concentrated to a more concentrated solution Functions of water body temperature regulation o water absorb any excess heat o body secretes fluids via perspiration o skin is cool as perspiration evaporates removal of body waste o via urine o urea excretion o role of protein and sodium typical volume of urine produces per day is 1 liter or more o a greater urine output that that is fine ▯ Minerals Inorganic elements o Essential o 4% of body weight Major minerals o Need > 100 mg/day o Sodium, calcium, phosphorus Trace minerals o < 100 mg/ day o iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride they make possible the transfer of nerve impulses they are constituents of important body compounds they DO NOT provide energy they help maintain water balance CALCIUM is the greatest amount of mineral in the average human body Bioavailability Not all ingested minerals can be absorbed Animal products are better absorbed!!! o No fiber The same mineral present in two different foods may have different bio-availabilities The trace mineral content of plants o Depend what type of soil serves as the medium The refining process removes most trace minerals ▯ Sodium Positive ion in extracellular fluid Aldosterone regulates sodium balance Key for retaining body water Excretion regulated by kidneys ▯ ▯ “Today’s sodium intake is tomorrow’s urine output” ▯ ▯ Causes of Hypertension Aging Atherosclerosis Obesity 6x greater o Increase fat mass ▯ Sodium and Blood Pressure Increased blood pressure to excrete sodium from the kidney o Salt sensitive people ▯ Minerals and Hypertension (NEED TO KNOW) >1000 mg calcium a day lowers blood pressure 2-4 gm of potassium a day lowers blood pressure magnesium may lower blood pressure at 2x the RDA (RDA about 400 mg we are low) ▯ Potassium Associated with lowering blood pressure Food sources o Milk, grains, fruits, vegetables Adequate intake o About 5000 mg a day Don’t need to know deficiency!!! ▯ Calcium MAJOR MINERAL IN BODY Makes up 40% of minerals in our body Don’t absorb it very well If deficient.. o You absorb it better than someone who isn’t deficient Factors influencing absorption of calcium o Enhancing… Slightly acidic environment Vitamin D PTH (parathyroid hormone) o Limits… Fiber intake (phytates and oxalates) Presence of polyphenols in tea Aging Lack of vitamin D Blood calcium is regulated (ON REVIEW) o Blood level is maintained at the price of bone calcium o High or normal calcitonin is released Signals for calcium to be released by bone o When low Parathyroid hormone stimulates for calcium to be released by bone Tells kidney to hold on to calcium Tells kidney to activate vitamin D Activate vitamin D and increases intestinal absorption of vitamin D Functions of Calcium o Forming and maintaining bones major role o Essential for Blood clotting Nerve impulses Muscle contraction o Food sources Milk, canned fish, tofu, calcium fortified food (orange juice) spinach, kale, collard, mustard greens but these contain fiber so harder to absorb o RDA is 1000 mg/ day We consume about 40- 800 mg/ day Benefits of calcium o Weight loss ▯ Magnesium May decrease blood pressure Primarily in green leafy plants Food sources o Whole grains, chocolate, nuts, seeds o Found in hard tap water RDA is 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women ▯ ▯ Trace Minerals Needed in small amounts Essential Difficult to study due to the trace amounts needed by the body Food content dependent on soil content ▯ Iron Most common nutritional deficiency world wide! Only trace mineral that is added back in the enrichment process o Because anemia is so common Very hard time absorbing iron If anemic it is easier to absorb iron than someone who isn’t low Food sources o Heme iron (meat products) Vs. Nonheme iron (plant products) o Enriched grains, red meat, fortified cereals (Nonheme) o Milk (POO SOURCE) Meat is the easiest way to absorb iron o Iron is wrapped up in fiber Enhancing absorption.. o Vitamin C Limits absorption o Phytic acid (grains – cereals) o Oxalic acid (leafy greens) ▯ ▯ KNOW IRON ABSORPTION IN THE GI (picture) ▯ ▯ jh ▯ ▯ ▯ DON’T NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ZINC ▯ ▯ Fluoride Helps prevent tooth decay Preventions of cavities Sources o Most of it is absorbed o Fluoridate water o Toothpaste o Tea, marine fish (with bones), natural water sources Adequate intake o 3.1-3.8 mg/ day for adults toxicity o Colorado brown stain o Mottling (fluorosis) of the teeth in children o In high amounts can weaken teeth in children over time ▯ Selenium Readily absorbed Excreted through the urine and feces ▯ Chromium Enhances the effect of insulin Increase the transport of glucose across the cell membrane Popular with dieters and athletes Lost in milling process Sources o Beer, eggs, nuts, mushrooms, meats o Increased by using stainless steal utensils ▯ ▯ Osteoporosis Bone types o Osteoclast: breaks down bone o Osteoblast: rebuild bone Bone remodeling o Bone turnover Osteoporosis is… o Decreased bone mass o Porous bone o Breakdown of bone exceeds rebuilding of bone o Bone becomes weak and brittle Bone strength o Depends on bone mineral density and bone mass achieved o Related to age, gender, genetics, and dietary history o Peak bone density in childhood, adolescence ▯ Estrogen Exposure Estrogen protective Increased risk of not normal cycles Amenorrheic o No cycle for about 6 months o Oligomenorrhea 36 days and 3-6 per year ▯ ▯ Anaerobic glycolysis Limited oxygen to the muscle cells Intense physical activity (sprinting) o Anything under 3 minutes is considered anaerobic Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid Only can use glucose Come from muscle glycogen Liver will store glucose Uses dietary CHO Can breakdown body to use body proteins for energy o Dietary protein Fat Fuel Majority of stored energy in the body Produces 120 ATP from a 16 carbon chain fatty acid Trained muscles have more mitochondria to utilize fat as fuel NOT useful for intense/brief anaerobic exercise The more fatty acids released into the bloodstream, the more fat will be used by the muscle ▯
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