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Week 11- Bioology

by: Raquel Notetaker

Week 11- Bioology BIOL 1010

Raquel Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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3.1 and 3.2 powerpoints
Introduction to Biology
Class Notes
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This 71 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raquel Notetaker on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


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Date Created: 05/04/16
Unit 3: Ecology The Biosphere What is the Biosphere? • “All regions of the Earth’s hydrosphere, lithosphere, &atmosphere in which organisms can live.” • Earth Systems Science- the interactions between the biological, physical and chemical processes at multiple scales. The Biosphere is a Dynamic System •What is a “Dynamic System”? •“A group of connected, interdependent elements that affect each other and change through time.” •Natural events can cause changes in one or more spheres •Interactions amongst the spheres can also cause changes •e.g. a change in the atmosphere can cause a change in the hydrosphere & vice versa. Biome A large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g., forest or tundra. Ecology and abiotic factors Ecology is the study of the distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on the planet, and the effects that human activity has had and will have on the biosphere. Abiotic factors affecting biomes and the diversity of life include: •the Earth’s climate (temperature, rainfall), •energy source (photosynthesis or chemosynthesis), •nutrient distribution, •soil and wind for terrestrial systems, •dissolved oxygen, salinity, current and tides for aquatic systems. Biotic factors of biomes • The organisms that make up an ecosystem – Competition for resources such as food, light – Predator prey relationships as well as other community relationships with organisms in the biome The Rainforest as an example of the biosphere Discovery channel video “Rain Forests” _backup copy of the video_ Rainforest biome- conditions affecting the biome Climatic variation Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents as an example of the biosphere Video Tube worms _backup copy of the video_ Hydrothermal vent biome- conditions affecting the biome •Sunlight is not a factor •Chemoautotrophic mechanism using sulfur compounds as an energy source to convert CO2into organic food molecules for nutrition of hosts •Bacteria provide the nutrients for the other members of the community •What does one consider climate in this biome? Earth’s Energy Budget from the sun 30% 2 ~ 340 W/m 19% ~ 170 W/m Harvard on the Seasons • A quick view of common misconceptions Average Annual Insolation at surface of Earth Seasons and climate Video: Earth’s Orbit, the Seaso&s the Distribution of Solar Energy _backup copy of the video_ Clicker question • When it is summer in Troy, what season is it in Argentina? – A. Summer – B. Fall – C. Winter – D. Spring Argentina Troy Atmospheric Circulation cooled, dry air descends air warms, picks up moisture, rises cooled, drier air descends air warms, picks up moisture, rises •Click to view animation Biome: latitudinal and elevational gradients? High Changes in plant form along environmental gradients Alpine Tundra Montane Coniferous Forest Elevation Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Low Tropical Temperate Northern Arctic Forest Deciduous Coniferous Tundra Forest Forest Low Latitude High UDL fig 49.10 What causes major wind patterns? • Cooled air descends at 30 N &S easterlies • Disperses N & S along surface • To preserve angular momentum: westerlies  Air flowing south must slow down relative to Earth’s surface northeast tradewinds  Causes air to get behind Earth’s rotatio& veer left  Air flowing north must speed up relative to Earth’s surface  Causes air to get ahead of Earth’s rotati&nveer to right © 2001 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning UDL 49.4b Coriolis Effect & Wind Direction Animation: ations/es1904/es1904page01.cfm. Ocean currents and climate animation click map to run flash animation UDL 49.6 Global Precipitation & Temperature ppt ’98 – ’03 Temperature January ‘03 Temperature and precipitation impacts on biomes Biomes are _____? “Largest definable regional ecosystems characterized by distinct types of vegetation, animals, and microbes that have developed under specific soil and climatic conditions.” Biomes of the World mediterranean taiga mid-latitude foretundra Climate & Biomes World Biome Regions Geographic distributions of biomes correspond closely to major climate zones. Biome? Mid-Latitude Forest (Temperate Deciduous Forest) Biome? Mediterranean (Chaparral) Biome? Grassland Biome? Warm Desert: Sonoran Desert Biome? Taiga (Boreal Forest) Biome? Tundra Whittaker’s classification of biomes Freshwater aquatic ecosystems: Streams and wetlands Intertidal or estuary where marine meets land or freshwater intertidal estuary Oceanic Ecosystem Biome gradients and latitude Changes in plant form along environmental gradients High Alpine Tundra Montane Coniferous Forest Elevation Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Low Tropical Temperate Northern Arctic Forest Deciduous Coniferous Tundra Forest Forest Low Latitude High UDL fig 49.10 Biodiversity is impacted by the latitude pelican grasshopper deciduous tree # of bird species and latitude Latitudinal Diversity of Bird Species Not all taxa follow latitudinal diversity gradient aphid salamander conifers Why does this gradient exist? Productivity hypothesis More light, hea&,ppt in tropics Plus longer growing seasons Greater productivity promotes:  Increased specialization  Higher population sizes  Larger geographic ranges  Lower extinction rates  Higher speciation rates Why does this gradient exist? Stability hypothesis • Tropical climates less variable • Greater stability promotes:  Increased specialization  Larger geographic ranges  Lower extinction rates  Higher speciation rates Populations: Growth & Extinction Population Ecology What is a population? “A group of individuals of the same species living together in the same place at the same time.” Major Questions in Population Ecology • What factors determine the distribution & abundance of individuals in a population? • Why are some populations stable while others exhibit regular oscillations or chaotic fluctuations? • Why are some populations extinction prone while others survive much longer? Population Stability  Some populations have stable abundances Northern Skua Population Instability Flour beetle  Other populations are variable, undergoing major fluctuations in abundance from year to year or in briefer intervals. Phytoplankton Population Growth Some populations show exponential growth but this is not sustainable under normal conditions What factors affect population size? Biotic factors? Physical • Food factors? • Habitat • Light • Interactions: • Nutrients – Predation • Water – Competition • Temperature – Parasitism • Space – Disease • pH Exponential Growth in a rabbit population: per capita rate of increase In this example r (per capita rate of increase) is 0.3. This value for r is due to # of births minus the # of deaths. For these rabbits with r = 0.3, there were 50 births and 20 deaths in one month with an initial population of 100 or r = 30/100 = 0.3. Exponential Growth Model assumes ideal growth conditions and r is at the maximum capacity of the members to reproduce Equation to calculate the rate of population increase is: G = rN •G is the growth rate of the population (# of new individuals added per time interval) •N is the population size at a particular time •r is the per capita rate of increase Exponential Growth  Growth under conditions of unlimited resources  All populations capable of exponential growth  Rate of change in numbers: dN/dt = maxN or Nt= N 0 rt  Doubling time = time until N /N t 20 N tN0= e = 2 rt ln(Nt/N0) = ln(e ) = ln(2) rt = .7 t ~ .7/r  If r = 10%/yr then doubling time = ?  t = .7/.10 = 7 yrs A population is growing at 1.4% per year. What is the doubling time? A. 10 yrs B. 35 yrs C. 50 yrs D. 100 yrs Attendance exercise- not a clicker question Bacterial Biotic Potential One bacterium weighs 1  10 -12grams. Say we start with one individual and a division occurs every 20 min. Assuming no mortality and that growth follows N =tN e0, how many bacteria exist after 2 days? Bacterial Biotic Potential • After 48 hours how many doublings? 3 per hr x 48 = 144 • How many cells? (2)144= 2.2  103cells • Total weight? 2.2  1043cells x 10-1g/cell = 2.2  101g • Mass of earth is 5.98  10 27 g • Is such growth possible? What sets population size? • Biotic potential • Environmental resistance The Logistic Equation  Simplest model of limited growth = K  K = carrying capacity = maximum population that can be sustained in a given habitat at a given time.  Continuous growth form most common: *(1 – N/K) dN/dt = rN  What happens as N approaches K? Logistic Growth Examples Merlin Paramecium Fluctuating Environment- density dependent factors dhigh d b average Birth or Death Rate dlow Klow K Khigh Population Size Fluctuating Environment Paramecium Merlin Khigh K high Klow Klow At K there is ____ feedback from environment that increases ____ &decreases ______. high At Klowthere is ____ feedback from environment that increases ____& decreases ______. r& K Selection: The Logistic Model and Life Histories r & K Selection: examples Many offspring - high r Few offspring - low r House mousewhales Dandelions Horses House flies Coconut trees Per capita rate of increase varies with the organism r > r > r bacterium rabbit elephant Video: Reproducing Handouts Characteristics of Opportunistic (r) & Equilibrial Species (K) Characteristic Opportunistic Species (r) Equlibrial Species (K) Homeostatic capability Limited Often extensive Maturation time Short Long Lifespan Short Long Mortality rate High Low # of young/reproductive episode Many Few # of reproductions per lifetim~ one Several Age at 1 reproduction Early Late Eggs or offspring size Small Large Parental care None Extensive rmax and Generation Time Generation Time, d Size and Rate of Increase Representative Population Densities 2 Organism Density/km Soil arthropods 5,000,000,000 Barnacles (adult) 2,000,000,000 Trees 50,000 Field mice 25,000 Woodland mice 1,200 Deer 4 Human beings Netherlands 346 Canada 2 rd Data from C.J. Krebs, Ecology, 3 ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1985) Size and Population Density Population Declines


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