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Week 13 Notes- Biology

by: Raquel Notetaker

Week 13 Notes- Biology BIOL 1010

Raquel Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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3.5 3.6
Introduction to Biology
Class Notes
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This 78 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raquel Notetaker on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


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Date Created: 05/04/16
Madagascar 2004 Microcebus lehilahytsara Patterns in Biodiversity Video: Critical Biodiversity How Many Species? R.M. MAY Named species: 1,800,000 How many species now exist? Organisms Species Described Species yet to be discovered Viruses 5,000 .50 M Bacteria 4,000 3.00 M Fungi 70,000 1.50 M Protozoans 40,000 .20 M Algae 40,000 10.00 M Plants 250,000 .50 M Vertebrates 45,000 .05 M Roundworms 15,000 1.00 M Mollusks 70,000 .20 M Crustaceans 40,000 .20 M Spiders, Mites 75,000 1.00 M Insects 950,000 10-100 M Discovery of New Species Vietnam 1996 India 2004 Macaca munzala Madagascar 2004 Borneo 2005 Microcebus lehilahytsaraCivet cat? Discovery of New Species • Sampled 900 L of sea water • Sequenced genetic material • Estimated 40,000 new microbial species Craig Venter 2004 Distribution of species Prediction of distribution of 11 chameleon species on the island of Madagascar using data from NASA on land cover maps (MODIS) and using a genetic algorithm (GARP-Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction) to map out possible distributions. Latitudinal Gradient in Mammal Species Species Diversity on Islands 100 10 Log Species 2 Virgin Islands < 1 miles 1 1 100 10000 Log Area (miles ) Species Diversity on Islands 100 10 Log Species Guadeloupe700 miles 1 1 100 10000 Log Area (miles ) Species Diversity on Islands 100 10 Log Species Jamaica 4200 miles 1 1 100 10000 Log Area (miles ) Species Diversity on Islands Increasing area 10x increases species 2x z S=cA Why Does Species-Area Relationship Exist? Fish Species Diversity in Lakes Increasing area 10x increases species 2x The World is Patchy . Habitat Fragmentation Small is vulnerable. Isolated fragments of rain forest soon suffer from exposure to the elements. Habitat Fragmentation of Forests • Warwickshire, England 400-1960 Logging Roads in Amazon Attendance exercise: Based upon what you have heard, what impact would patchiness have in the rainforest? Would the impact here be less or greater than the impact in Warwickshire? Post your answer to the bulletin board. Habitat Destruction  Tropical RFs cover only 6% of Earth  But they contain ~50% of all species 1985  60% of loss due to burning for farms  20% due to logging & clear cutting  10% to cattle farms 2001 Satellite images of rainforest destruction near Rondonia, Brazil. Video: Deforestation _video_backup copy Factors that Promote & Maintain Species Diversity Video: Disturbance & Diversity _video backup copy_ Volcanic Eruption: Hawaii Leads to primary succession of species New Land: Hawaii New Land: Hawaii Type of succession? Primary Initial Colonizers What are these colonizers called? Pioneer species Primary Succession on Lava Rock Mt. Saint Helens: Before, During & After Spirit Lake before Spirit Lake after Satellite images in time-lapse video of 30 years of recovery _youTubeNasaVersion_ Mt. Saint Helens Recovery- Secondary Succession Modern View of Nature “Nature is dominated by flux and change. The real constant is eternal turmoil.” - W.Stevens Beaver Pond Not all disturbances are of such great proportion Beaver Pond Beaver Pond What is happening? Secondary succession Diversity vs. Disturbance 7 6 5 4 3 Di2ersity 1 0 0 Disturbance 1 Field Tests Number of Algal Species 2 Littorina Density #/m 4 3 2 1 M0dal species number Low Intermediate High Disturbance Level Official video of the International Year of Biodiversity 2010 _video backup file_ Food Webs & Ecosystem Structure Minnows Bosminaphnia ScenedeAnabena “One of the greatest intellectual challenges of the 21 century is to unravel ecological complexity and understand how ecosystems function.” - Jeff Harvey, Science Ecosystems are Complex Adaptive Systems  Large number of interacting components  Interactions non-linear  Dynamics sensitive to initial conditions  Prediction from components difficult  Biotic components can a&achange Partial food web on island of St. Martin Energy and Nutrient Flow Overview Trophic levels are hierarchical Tertiary consumers Trout Secondary consumers Minnows Primary consumers Bosmina Daphnia Primary producers Scenedesmus Anabena Trophic levels and energy relationships Now how will he make this connection? & Remember the lynx and the snoeshoe hare? How would the web be affected if lynx removed? Snowshoe hare + Red Squirrel + Ground squirrel + Grasses - Bog birch - Grey willow - Soapberry - White spruce - Coyotes + Red fox + Wolverine + Wolf + Great horned owl + ? Golden eagle + ? Hawk owl + ? Goshawk + ? Kestrel + ? Red tailed hawk + ? Northern harrier + ? Spruce grouse - Willow ptarmigan - Moose - Small rodents - ? Red squirrel - ? Ground squirrel - ? Passerine birds - ? Forbs ? Grasses ? How would web be affected if hares removed? Red Squirrel + Ground squirrel + Grasses +? Bog birch +? Grey willow +? Soapberry +? White spruce +? Lynx - Coyotes - Red fox - Wolverine - Wolf - Great horned owl - ? Golden eagle - ? Hawk owl - ? Goshawk -? Kestrel -? Red tailed hawk -? Northern harrier -? Spruce grouse +? Willow ptarmigan +? Moose -+? Small rodents - +? Red squirrel - +? Ground squirrel - +? Passerine birds - +? Forbs +-? Grasses +-? How can we understand web dynamics?  Computer models of webs with many species  Biologically realistic equations for interaction & dynamics, unlike L-V eqs.  Include biotic effects. parasitism, disease, mutualism  Incorporate evolution & variations among individuals  i.e. biotic components can adapt &change Modeling ecosystems • The Mother of All Complex Systems ~20,000 insect sp 1200 tree sp 1000 bird sp 200 mammal sp 10 microbe sp? Tropical Rain Forest along the Amazon Imagine the model required to illustrate this food web and the amount of species information needed to build it. Pacific Coast Kelp Bed Why did kelp ecosystems off Alaska begin to collapse in the 1990s? Kelp Forest is a Fish Nursery Sea Urchins Eat Kelp Sea Otters Eat Urchins Sea Lions Eat Fish Orcas Eat Sea Lions Orcas May Also Eat Otters Oceanic and Kelp Ecosystems Oceanic and Kelp Ecosystems What happens to the abundances of these species under increased fishing pressure? Attendance exercise Fishing pressure in the North Pacific is about to increase five fold. Below, indicate your predictions concerning how this increase will affect the abundances of the species in the food web. Use an up arrow to indicate an increase, a horizontal arrow to indicate no change, and a down arrow to indicate a decrease. Enter a question mark if you think the direction of change can’t be determined from the information you have been given. oceanic fish ______________ sea urchins ____________ sea lions ______________ kelp ____________ orcas ______________ kelp bed fish ____________ sea otters ______________ Oceanic and Kelp Ecosystems … until kelp ecosystem and orca population collapse More Boats  Fewer Fish Fishing Down the Food Chain 6 February 1998, Volume 279, pp. 860-863. Daniel Pauly,* Villy Rainer Froese, and Francisco Torres Jr. Video: Empty Oceans, Empty Nets Review: Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling in a Simple Ecosystem Biogeochemical cycles Carbon General Nitrogen Phosphorus Phosphorus Cycling Phosphorus Gone Wild: Eutrophication of Lakes P added No additional P Nitrogen Cycle and the Importance of Microorganisms The Carbon Cycle Global Warming Video: Global warming and Climate Change real media format Earth’s Climate: Always Changing Earth’s CO 2evels Why these fluctuations? • Do you see any relationship between temperature & [CO2]? Temperature and CO 2 380 Suess Effect Δ C Value δ C Value CO 2ool (‰) (‰) Fossil Fuels -1,000 -28 Terrestrial Biosphere +45 -26 Ocean +45 -10 Atmosphere +45 -8 Average delta values– both for stable carbon and radiocarbon–of the different major pools of carbon dioxide. The addition of carbon dioxide that is depleted in C-14 lowers the C-14 proportion in the air. Scientific Observations Consistent with Global Climate Change • Antarctic ice warming & • Changing timing of seasons breaking up • Lengthening of growing season • Arctic drying • Increase of ocean wave height • California marine systems • More frequent & bigger storms moving north • Bore hole temperature data • Tropical diseases leaving • The dozen hottest years of tropics record since 1980 • Destruction of coral reefs • Hottest year of record was 2006 • Increased size of warm Pacific pool • Greenland ice sheet • Heating of world’s oceans • Increased NO in Pacific • Melting of tropical mountain glaciers


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