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Lecture & Textbook Notes Ch16

by: Lorelei Wong

Lecture & Textbook Notes Ch16 PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > Lecture Textbook Notes Ch16
Lorelei Wong
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About this Document

Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
types, Of, Therapy, structure, mind, and, behavior, biomedical, alternative, humanistic, Psychoanalysis, cognitive, Behavioral
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 05/04/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders  Types of therapy o Psychotherapy – interaction between therapist & person with difficulties or disorders o Biomedical therapy – medications or medical services that directly affect the nervous system o Eclectic approach – mixes both psychotherapy and biomedical o Therapy approaches:  1. Depends on therapist  Clinical – assessing disorders or psychotherapy o Prescribes meds in some cases  Psychiatrist – MD’s can prescribe meds o Usually reserved for the most “severe” disorders  Counseling psychologist – day-to-day adjustment issues  Clinical social worker – provides therapy, usually regarding common family & personal issues  2. Depends on disorder  Learned  psychotherapy o Ex: phobia  Biological  biomedical therapy o Ex: schizophrenia  Environmental  social interventions  Four psychotherapy techniques o 1. Psychoanalysis – based on Freudian theory  Unconscious “pressure” causes disorders  Bringing up conflicts & impulses to conscious relieve pressure  Resistance – unconsciously blocking anxieties from entering consciousness  Ex: stuttering, changing the subject, forgetting what you were saying  Transference – re-focusing strong feelings from early life (love, anger) for others toward psychoanalyst  Benefits of psychoanalysis  some benefit, self-insight  Criticisms of psychoanalysis  Time-consuming, expensive therapy  Little evidence for constructs like repression o 2. Humanistic theory – emphasis on self-actualization (positive growth, reading potential, making positive choices)  Carl Rogers  Client-centered therapy – create accepting, open environment to promote growth o “non-directive therapy” o Active listening – empathetic listening technique  Therapist as psychological mirror, source of unconditional positive regard PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Psychoanalysis, humanistic therapy: recovery through self-awareness, self- discovery  Benefits of humanistic therapy  Can provide solutions, self-insight  Criticisms of humanistic therapy  Lacks specificity  Probably less beneficial for less verbal clients o 3. Behavioral therapy – uses conditioning principles (classical & operant) to eliminate unwanted behaviors  Aversive conditioning – pairing unpleasant stimulus with unwanted behavior  Systematic desensitization – gradually pairing feared stimulus with deep relaxation  Ex: watch plane fly  go to airport  buy ticket  get on plane  see door close  taxi  take off  Flooding – suddenly confronting feared stimulus  Ex: OCD & dirt  Benefits of behavioral therapy  Works well for anxiety disorders (phobias, compulsions)  Focuses on specific problems  Easy to use, even for nonprofessionals  Criticisms of behavioral therapy  Does not address underlying reasons for behavior o 4. Cognitive therapy – illogical & irrational thoughts critical to many disorders  Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) – uses conditioning to change problematics thoughts & behaviors  Rational-emotive therapy (ABC model) – confront irrational beliefs  A: Adversity – negative, activating conditioning  B: Belief – irrational, self-defeating  C: Consequences – anxiety, depression  Ex: A – getting dumped, B – “No one will ever love me again. I am unlovable”, C – depression  Benefits of cognitive therapy  Widely effective (anxiety, depression, substance abuse, eating disorders)  Pairs well with behavior therapy  Criticisms of cognitive therapy  Sometimes life is irrational, may not always be applicable  Does psychotherapy work? o Largely effective…  Self-reported as helpful 70-85% of the times  Therapists generally report improvement in clients  Better life outcomes after therapy o …but not for everyone? PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Therapy most effective when pairing approach with specific problems  Biomedical therapy o Antipsychotic drugs  Ex: chlorpromazine, thorazine  Invented in 1950’s and changed mental health  Used to treat schizophrenia (positive symptoms)  Block dopamine receptors o Antidepressant drugs  Ex: Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil  Used to treat depression  SSRIs – block serotonin reuptake  Tricyclics – increase amount of norepinephrine  MAO inhibitors – block monoamine oxidase o MAO – breaks down neurotransmitters in synapse o Mood stabilizers  Ex: lithium  Used to treat bipolar disorder (mania)  Often paired with antidepressant  Benefits 70% of bipolar patients … and we have no idea why o Antianxiety drugs  Ex: Xanax, Valium  Used to treat anxiety  Depress nervous system activity  Alternative therapy o Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)  Used to treat depression (if meds therapy doesn’t help)  Induced electrical seizure in anesthetized patients  6-12 sessions (2-3x per week)  Controversial but seems to work  Pro:  High success rate for difficult cases o Helpful for 50% of ECT patients  No solid evidence of risks, brain damage o Safe for pregnant women  Con:  No clue why it works o Possibility of brain damage  Some short-term memory issues around treatments (anesthesia effect?)  Follow-up treatment, medication of ten necessary  Administered around temporal love but spreads throughout brain  Any other “jumper cables” for depressed brain?  1. Implanted electrodes o Chest: stimulation of vagus nerve (connected to limbic system) PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz o Brain: electrodes in the limbic system  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) – magnetic pulses stimulate targeted brain areas o Non-invasive no pain o 20-30 minute sessions (2-4 weeks) o Effective in treating depression, strokes, multiple sclerosis, spinal injuries, negative symptoms of schizophrenia o Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)  Used for PTSD  recall traumatic events while watching finger waving in front of eyes (eye movements)  Self-report: less distress about traumatic (often only 1-3 sessions) o Psychosurgery – surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue  Last resort, rarely used  Prefrontal lobotomy – surgically removing frontal lobe connections to other areas of the brain  1940’s-1950’s – 40-50,000 lobotomies performed  Intended to control emotional and violent patients  Designed to be easy, quick procedure to be performed at mental hospitals o Only takes about 10 minutes  Procedure: o 1. Put patient into coma using shock o 2. Insert icepick like instrument through noes and eye socket into the brain o 3. Wiggle around to cut and damage connections  Often left patients unresponsive, lethargic, vegetative state o Sometimes immaturity, impulsivity  Objections to lobotomies o Only 1/3 “improve” (and 1/3 get worse…) o Ethical objections to brain damage, side effects o 1950s: antipsychotics antidepressants  decline of lobotomies  Cingulotomy  Introduced as alternative to lobotomy (1948)  Surgically targets anterior cingulate to treat OCD o Gamma knife surgery – beams of radiation used to treat OCD PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Textbook Notes  Transference – love or anger that is moved from the prior event or emotion directed at a person to the therapist who is trying to help them  Aversive conditioning – therapy meant to reduce the frequency of undesired behavior by creating an unpleasant stimulus when it happens  Cognitive treatment approaches – changing cognitions about world and themselves  Cognitive-behavioral approach – incorporates ways of learning to change how people think  Rational-emotive behavior theory – rewiring a person’s beliefs to a more realistic, rational way of thinking by challenging their dysfunctional beliefs  Interpersonal therapy – focuses on social relationships to help control emotions and moods  Group therapy – meet in a group with a therapist to discuss problems  Family therapy – focuses on family as a unit and not individual issues, how to solve as a unit  Drug therapy – use prescriptions to control psychological disorders  Community psychology – prevention and minimization of psychological disorders in the community  Deinstitutionalization – mental patients being transferred from institutions back to society


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