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Introduction to Psychology week 16 Notes

by: AHegerman

Introduction to Psychology week 16 Notes Psych 111

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This covers Dr. Clinton's week 16 Introduction to Psychology Notes
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 05/04/16
05/02 (lecture) 9-9:50 Announcements - Exam 3 is on May 5th (thursday) - Your grade is based on points earned not percentage so pay attention to your overall amount, not the percentage on BB. 900 is an A 800 is a B etc. - Minute papers and clicker point will be entered after thursday - Wednesday May 11th is the final - Lowest exam dropped, so taking the final can only help you - Teaching and learning study, 2 points towards your final (show up on time) - 90 minutes to complete the final Overview - Conformity: Mimicry and Norms - Obedience: Factors and lessons - Group situations and group behavior - Social facilitation - Social loafing - Polarization - The power of individuals Social Influence Conformity: Mimicry and more Conformity refers to adjusting our behaviour or thinking to fi t in with a group standard The power of conformity has many components and forms, including - Automatic mimicry affecting behavior - Social norms affecting our thinking - Normative and informational social influence Automatic Mimicry - Some of our mimicry of other people is not by choice, but automatic: - Contagious yawning - Adopting regional accents - Empathetic shifts in mood (automatic) Responding to Social Norms - When we are with other people and perceive a social norm (a “correct” or “normal” way to behave or think in this group), our behavior may follow the norm rather than following our own judgement. - Asch Conformity Studies: about one third of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with the group. Obedience: Response to Commands Milgram wanted to study the influence of direct commands on behavior. The question: Under what social conditions are people more likely to obey commands? The experiment: An authority figure tells participants to administer shocks to a “learner” (who was actually a confederate of the researcher) when the learner gives wrong answers. Voltage increases, how high would people go? but not everyone in every situation was “obedient” - Obedience levels were highest when - The experimenter was affiliated with a prestigious university - The experimenter was in the same room as the “teacher” - The learner/victim was in another room - The learner/victim was depersonalized in some way - There were no role models for defiance Lesson from the Conformity and Obedience Studies - When under pressure to conform or obey, ordinary, principled people will say and do things they never would have believe they would do. - The real evil may be in the situation - To look a person committing harmful acts and assume that the person is cruel/evil would be to make the fundamental attribution error Social Facilitation - Individual performance is intensified when you are observed by others. - Experts excel but novices, trying complex skills, do worse. Why would the presence of an audience “facilitate” better performance for everyone but newcomers? - Being watched, and simply being in crowded conditions, increases one’s arousal, along with increasing motivation for those who are confident, and anxiety for for those who are not confident. Social Loafing - Social loafing: the tendency of people in a group to show less effort when not held individually accountable Why does social loafing happen? - When your contribution isn’t rewarded or punished, you might not care what people think. - People may not feel their contributions are needed, that the group will be fine. Groupthink - In pursuit of social harmony (and avoidance of open disagreement), groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas. - Irony: Group “think” prevents thinking, prevents a realistic assessment of options. Social Influence The power of individuals - Some people resist obeying and conforming - Individuals can start social movements and social forces, not just get caught up in them. - Group problems can be prevented if individuals speak up when a group decision seems wrong. 05/04 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Exam 3 review day Module 13 - Culture - Individualist - Collectivist - Gender and sex - Gender similarities hypothesis - Gender roles - Gender identity - Social learning theory - Sex is whether you have XX or XY chromosomes and your gender is determined by yourself - Collectivistic groups focus more on the group than one person whereas their counterpart the individualist focuses more on one person Module 14 - Zygote - Embryo - Fetus - Teratogen - Fetal alcohol syndrome - Reflexes - Habituation - Sensory development - Women who are pregnant or trying to get pregnant should avoid teratogens in order to ensure a healthy baby is born - Habituation is when a young child stares at something intensely because they are interested it, on the other hand it is still habituation when they look away out of disinterest Module 15 - Schemas - Assimilate - Accommodate - Sensorimotor stage - Object permanence - Preoperational stage - Conservation - Egocentrism - Theory of mind - Concrete operations - Formal operations - Vygotsky’s view - Scaffolding - Harlow’s monkey studies - Self-concept - Parenting styles - Authoritarian - Authoritative - Permissive - Uninvolved/neglectful (from lecture) - Accommodation is when a child changes her schema in order to add new information to a category she already understands Module 16 - Kohlberg's view on morals reasoning - Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional - Haidt’s view on moral intuition - Identity - Preconventional reasoning is when someone engages in a behavior in order to stay away from something bad or get something good - Conventional reasoning is when you do something for the feelings of the others in the situation - Postconventional reasoning is when ethical calling of marriage Module 17 - Physical issues with aging (sensory issues and reaction time) - Positive influence on exercise on aging - Neurocognitive disorder - Alzheimer's disease - Exercise in old age can help your body in many ways Module 49 - Psychological disorder - Deviance - The medical model - DSM 5 - Benefits and problems with labeling - Some of the benefits of labeling include helping doctors understand symptoms, helps to calculate prevalence, and can help with having a shorthand - Problems with labeling include identifying as their disorder, for example, someone with anorexia will say “of course I binge and purge, I have anorexia” Module 50 - Anxiety disorders - Generalized anxiety disorder - Panic attack - Panic disorder - Agoraphobia - Specific phobias - Social anxiety disorder - Obsessive-compulsive disorder - Posttraumatic stress disorder - Explanations for anxiety disorders: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning, cognition, and genetics - GAD has to be prevalent for 6 months in order to be diagnosed, agoraphobia is the fear of having a panic attack in public, a panic attack can happen suddenly and is generally from high levels of stress - Classical conditioning can have a role in people’s disorders Module 51 - Mood disorders - Major depressive disorder - Bipolar disorder - Biological influences on depression (including evolutionary and neurotransmitters) - Social cognitive perspective - Ruminition - Depressive explanatory style - Depression's vicious cycle - Depression's vicious cycle refers to when you are upset about school and you continue to do worse Module 52 - Schizophrenia - Positive symptoms versus negative symptoms - Hallucinations - Delusions - Catatonia - Brain differences with people who have schizophrenia - With schizophrenia hallucinations and delusions are considered positive symptoms - A delusion refers to Module 53 - Dissociative disorders - Dissociative amnesia - Dissociative fugue - Dissociative identity disorder - Personality disorders - Antisocial personality disorder - Eating disorders - Anorexia nervosa - Bulimia nervosa - Binge eating disorder - Cultural influences on eating disorders - Bulimia refers to when someone is the proper weight and they binge and purge, anorexia is when they are underweight and they binge and purge and binge eating disorder refers to when someone is normal weight and binges but does not adhere to any purging actions Module 42 - Attribution theory - Dispositional attribution - Situational attribution - Fundamental attribution error - Attitudes affect actions - Peripheral route persuasion - Central route persuasion - Actions affect attitude - Foot-in-the-door phenomenon - Role playing - Cognitive dissonance - Central route persuasion attracts our logical mind in that if a juice has a lot of vitamins and tastes good, it is good to get because we need vitamins Module 43 - Conformity - Chameleon effect - Empathize - Normative social influence - Informational social influence - Obedience, milgram experiments - When is obedience highest - Social facilitation - Social loafing - Group polarization - Groupthink


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