Hist 1378 04/12 - 04/14 Notes
Hist 1378 04/12 - 04/14 Notes HIST 1378
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Taboh on Wednesday May 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1378 at University of Houston taught by Professor Matthew Clavin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see The U.S. Since 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 05/04/16
The U.S. Since 1877 HIST 1378 – 11 (25824) Prof. Clavin Chapter 28 (04/12/2016) Civil Rights movement began during slavery 1954 marks a turning point in America Murder of Emmett Till (1955) Emmett’s mother sends him to the south to spend time with his other family He went to a convenient store where a white woman was the cashier People claimed he either spoke to her, whistled at her or made physical contact with her He was kidnapped in the middle of the night, tortured and killed The killers were found not guilty even though they admitted to the crime Emmett’s body was sent to Chicago; his mother had an open casket funeral, and Jet Magazine photographers were allowed to take pictures of the body; the pictures were circulated all over the country Rosa Parks is arrested for not giving up her seat Parks is an activist and works for the NAACP The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) is a group of black women in the south They organized and oversaw the Montgomery bus boycotts; the boycotts affected downtown businesses economically because they lost customers Boycotts last for a year, but is mostly effective because the businesses begin to force change Most Civil Rights activists are faceless, nameless masses because they are not talked or talked about; the best way to make change in America is to do it yourself Civil Rights Grassroots movement – the most relevant grassroots movement in America Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. becomes world famous Had a Ph.D. in Sociology Moved from Massachusetts to Alabama with his wife, and was called on to be the leader of the Civil Rights movement Philosophy: nonviolent protesting; he was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi He said he wouldn’t help the bus boycott unless they agreed to be nonviolent/ “turn the other cheek” Saw that they couldn’t defeat the aggressors morally, but they could influence outsiders The media got ahold of the situation and the federal govt. was moved to do something about it There was legal integration in the South SNCC – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Mostly high school and college students The only places that were not integrated in the South were schools Two years after Brown v. Board, schools still haven’t integrated White people began pulling their children out of schools that were trying to integrate and began homeschooling them Private schools that only admitted white students were being created Little Rock Arkansas (1957) Central High School was an allwhite school in 1957 Rumors were circulating that nine black kids were going to be enrolled in the school, and white mobs began to form The governor Orval Faubus called in the Arkansas Coast Guard to keep the nine students from entering the school on the first day When school opens, the Little Rock Nine showed up; mobs started cursing at them and spitting on them The students are unable to go in, and have to go home; the whole incident is televised President Eisenhower received a lot of pressure to do something about the situation; he went on TV and told white Arkansas that the school WILL be integrated He sent thousands of armed troops to the south to protect the nine students; he also took control of the Arkansas coast guard and told them to protect the Little Rock Nine By the end of September, the Little Rock Nine were enrolled and allowed to attend classes Significance Showed that the Supreme court could pass laws, but not enforce them President and army were in favor of integration It was the first federal intervention in the south in years Led to greater white resistance Sitins and Freedom Rides Feb. 1 , 1960: Woolworth Pharmacy had a lunch counter at the back o Four black college students walked in and sat at the counter, and refused to move after they were denied service o The movement spread throughout the south o White college students from the North joined the black students in their sitins o Their goal was to be arrested; they organized themselves and came in groups o They were arrested and put in the penitentiary; it became too full, and soon the ones that were arrested were released because there was no room for them Freedom Rides The goal was to integrate bus systems Spring 1961: a Greyhound bus carrying activists tried to pull into a station, but was blocked by a white mob The bus pulled passed the station but when the tired blew out, a bomb was thrown under the bus Passengers were forced out of the bus and into the waiting mob carrying weapons Chapter 29: Civil Rights, Vietnam & Ordeal of Liberalism Identification Terms 1. 16 Street Baptist Church 2. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 3. 1968 1. John F. Kennedy 1. Youngest president, and also the first Catholic president 2. WWII vet; he suffered extreme injuries from the war, and as a result was on a lot of prescription drugs 3. Very flawed but aspirational person 4. He barely won the election, and he gave a great speech after winning; “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” 5. Was a Cold War warrior and promised to defeat the Soviet Union; if you were soft on the Cold War, you wouldn’t be elected [domestic political pressure] 2. Bay of Pigs Invasion (April 1961) 1. Fear that Soviet would be placed in Cuba aimed at Washington 2. While Americans vacationed in Cuba, most Cubans were dirt poor and couldn’t afford most anything; they hated the capitalists and embraced communism 3. ProAmerican Cuban fighters invaded Cuba 4. They expected to be welcomed as liberators and for the Cubans to turn against Castro 5. Freedom fighters were slaughtered; the Pentagon wanted air strikes on Cuba, but Kennedy refused. 3. 1960: Camelot period 4. Hundreds of revolutionaries were captured and executed in Cuba 5. Kennedy refused to send forces into Cuba, and was immediately labeled “soft on Communism.” 6. Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 1962) 1. Soviet missiles facing the U.S. discovered a year later in Cuba 2. Robert F. Kennedy called for a blockade the island so that no more Soviet ships could land in Cuba 3. Soviet ships approach Cuban shores and Kennedy called def. com 2; Soviets turned around their ships and retreated 4. Robert Kennedy negotiated with Soviet lawyers 5. JFK’s approval rating went from 10% to about 90%, the highest of any American president 7. Battle of Oxford, MI (Sept. – Oct. 1962) 1. James Meredith: Korean war vet; he decided to complete his degree at University of Mississippi 2. When rumors began circulating that Meredith was going to enroll, mobs began to form 3. Sept. 30 , 1962 – Kennedy sent federal marshals to escort Meredith into the school to enroll 4. They hid form attacks in the registrar building for about 24 hours 5. Marshalls were injured, and two were killed, one a reporter 6. Kennedy sent 3,000 troops to escort Meredith 7. Meredith did and enroll and finished his twoyear degree in 18month; he was the first black graduate of University of Mississippi 8. 1962: George Wallace voted governor; he vowed to keep Alabama segregated 1. Birmingham, AL was arguably the most segregated city in the south 2. Eugene “The Bull” Connor: said integration was a communist plot 9. Tens of thousands of black activists were thrown in jail 10. Dr. king moved to Birmingham, and was arrested for the 12 time; wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” 11. So many high school and college students were arrested that elementary school children began protesting; Children’s Crusade 12. Connor sent dogs on the marchers, and fire hoses and tanks were used 13. Segregation was legally outlawed in Birmingham as a result of public response to the media coverage of the event 14. March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom (August 1963) 1. There was so much integration that Dr. King began focusing on economic equality and opportunities 2. Dr. King invoked the Emancipation Proclamation in his “I Have a Dream” speech 15. Kennedy became an avid advocate of Civil Rights legislation th 4. 16 Street Baptist Church 1. Was the headquarter of the Birmingham Civil Rights struggle 2. Was a symbol of progress 3. Sept. 1963: four members of the KKK snuck into the basement of the church and planted timed sticks of dynamite 4. Dynamite exploded at the peak of the service 5. Many people were injured, and four little girls were killed 6. KKK members were arrested and tried, and were found not guilty 7. Activists began to embrace violent resistance 5. Significance 1. Black power movement started to gain inherence; Black empowerment 2. Nation of Islam was formed; its most famous preacher was Malcom X; it was a black supremacist party; believed white people were devils, and believed in self defense 3. Black Panther party was formed in California 4. Many black Americans began to question the nonviolent movement 5. Led to the most significant piece of Civil Rights legislation since the reconstruction 6. 1965: The Watts Riot 1. A young black man was pulled aside by a white police officer in LA; he was thrown on the hood of the car, and beaten in public 2. Bystanders tried to help in, and it resulted in a fight that led to other riots that lasted for six days 7. Dallas, TX – Nov. 22 , 1963 1. In order to get southern votes, JFK went to Dallas, TX 2. He was despised because he was Catholic and a Yankee 3. An ad was put in the morning paper saying that Kennedy was wanted for treason 4. As JFK and Jacqueline Kennedy paraded down the streets on downtown Dallas in their convertible, JFK was shot and killed 8. Lyndon Johnson 1. His presidency was considered an abysmal failure because of the Vietnam war 2. Johnson was from the south Tried to outdo Kennedy in confronting/ending the Cold War Vietnam was split in half by the U.N. after WWII; communism prevailed in the North, and the south was occupied Americans and French Dien Bien Thu France, U.S. and U.N. promised to leave Vietnam after WWII, but didn’t leave The Vietnamese starting resisting the French settlers Ho Chi Minh: embraced communism to free South Vietnam Vietnamese army clashed with French Army French army was crushed, and they pulled out of Vietnam
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