Ed Psych notes 4-19 and 4-21
Ed Psych notes 4-19 and 4-21 EIPT 3473
Popular in Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
EDAH 2963 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Neill on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EIPT 3473 at University of Oklahoma taught by Ben Heddy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
• Temperament: usual way you respond to the world ◦ 4 dimensions ‣ Continuum for each one ‣ Extroversion/Surgency • Sociable: get enjoyment from being with people • Positive affect: it doesn't take a lot for me to experience pleasure • High intensity pleasure: enjoying loud, obvious stimuli ‣ Opposite: Negative affect • Quckly responding with fear, sadness, discomfort at stimulus, and frustration ‣ Effortful control • Attentional control: can I focus and shift my attention? • Inhibitory control: can I stop myself from doing something inappropriate for the situation? • Activation control: can I make myself do something I don't want to do? ‣ Orienting sensitivity (adults) • Neutral perceptual sensitivity: noticing tiny details about yourself and the environment • Affective perceptual sensitivity: noticing less obvious emotional undertones • Associative sensitivity: understanding things intuitively without much environmental help • Personality: ways of thinking, feeling, and acting ◦ Temperament is just one aspect ◦ Also: ‣ Intellectual interests • Theater, music, mysteries, gardening ‣ Social habits ‣ Ways you deal with negative emotions like stress ‣ Ways you manage your effort and time ‣ Leisure interests ◦ One way of describing: The Big 5 (still a continuum) ‣ Extroversion: how outgoing you are in social situations ‣ Agreeableness: how kind and sympathetic you are ‣ Conscientiousness: how organized and perseverant you are ‣ Neuroticism: how much anxiety and fear you have ‣ Openness: how curious you are and how much you use your imagination ◦ Implications for teachers: ‣ Every year is different because different personalities affect the classroom differently ‣ Figure out which personalities annoy you and which you jive with ‣ Adjust to kids ways of responding ‣ Try to switch things up depending on personalities ‣ Think about differing personalities when forming groups ‣ Let kids use their natural strengths but also work on their weaknesses ‣ Clearly state your expectations for classroom behavior ‣ Set up routines, and help children cope when they're changed ‣ Arrange class to keep distractions at a low • Teacher should sit at the back so they can see everyone and the students don't know if you're looking ‣ Adjust for kids who are extremely at one end of a continuum ‣ Understand how complex personalities are • Self-understanding ◦ Dating proﬁle ‣ I value honesty above almost everything. I love talking to people and learning about their lives, but usually one on one or in small groups. I am an extremely hard worker and need someone who cares about intelligence and likes talking about complicated things. I love dancing salsa and bachata, and I sing and play clarinet. I'm going to be a math teacher and I want a family too. ◦ Sense of self: ‣ "Who am I?" • Personality, interests, identity ‣ "How good a person am I?" • Self-esteem, morals, self-worth ‣ "What can I do?" • Self-efﬁcacy: how effective I am ‣ Helps kids organize events and interpret the world ‣ Understand failure or success ‣ Motivates action when you identify with certain things ‣ Inﬂuences reactions ‣ Inﬂuences future goals ‣ Pushes them to choose to do things they are good at • Need to work on weaknesses too ‣ Act in ways that they perceive themselves • May handicap themselves • I'm a procrastinator, so I'm going to procrastinate ◦ Factors inﬂuencing sense of self ‣ Past activities and how well you did • Performing well on standardized tests made me think of myself as smart ‣ Others • Someone tells you you're good at or suck at something ◦ Dance teacher told me I was doing well, dance became more a part of my identity • Social competence and physical abilities according to your peers ◦ High school I had difﬁculty talking to people, classiﬁed myself as shy for a long time ‣ Group membership and how well you do in this group • I'm a Christian, and the ways I get to serve in my church make me think of myself as a kind person ◦ General trends ‣ Gets more complex over time ‣ Self-worth depends more and more on peer evaluations as we get older ‣ We internalize the evaluations and criteria people use to evaluate us and then evaluate others with the same criteria ‣ Combine speciﬁc perceptions into general concepts of identity • I like math, reading, and video games; I'm a nerd. ‣ Self-worth eventually becomes more stable ◦ Infants ‣ Self as distinct and lovable ‣ Imitate others ‣ Understand they are seeing themselves in mirrors ◦ Early childhood ‣ Sense of self is about history ‣ Language: I, me, my ‣ Self about physical appearance and simple personality traits ‣ Overconﬁdent and high self-esteem ◦ Middle childhood ‣ Self about physical attributes and psychological aspects ‣ Recognize strengths and weaknesses ‣ Still positive self-esteem ‣ Pick hobbies and niches of things they're good at ◦ Early Adolescence ‣ Think about how others perceive you • Imaginary audience: everyone is watching me! ‣ Personal fable • Belief in uniqueness ‣ Drop in self-esteem, especially for girls ◦ Late Adolescence ‣ Many, sometimes contradicting self-perceptions • Start developing future self ‣ Marsh's Identity development • Foreclosure ◦ Develop identity based on people around you ‣ Especially parents • Moratorium ◦ Actively looking for other options for identity • Identity diffusion ◦ Not thinking about or considering your identity • Achievement ◦ Deciding on an identity • Culture's inﬂuence on our sense of self ◦ Make us think about ourselves as a separate being from others ◦ Dictate how we think of ourselves in relation to others ‣ People, animals, inanimate objects ‣ Western culture puts people above animals ◦ Dictate spatiotemporal viewpoint ‣ How we view time and it's passing ◦ Dictate what is the norm ◦ Dictate values • Helping children with sense of self ◦ Ask them about themselves ◦ Recognize successes ◦ Help kids with self-improvement ‣ Tell them a couple things they did well and a couple things they could get better at ◦ Be honest about their weaknesses and give them solutions to overcome them ‣ Saves their self-worth and shows them how to use failure to learn ◦ Give them chances to explore interests and talents ◦ Consider differences in needs between genders ◦ Respect different cultural backgrounds ‣ Small groups where they give examples from their life fosters more cultural understanding ◦ Help them develop a healthy level of self-esteem • Identity Formation ◦ Identity ‣ "Stable, enduring sense of self" • Unchanging across different situations and time • Self-made ‣ Erikson's theory ◦ Many things affected in adolescence ◦ Each crisis forms one aspect of our identity (trust or mistrust, initiative or guilt) ◦ Stage 5: Identity Achievement vs. Role Confusion ‣ Psychosocial moratorium: all the people around us offer us options for our identity ‣ The cliques give us a sense of identity ‣ The people who reject us give us a sense of identity ◦ Synthesis of both theories ‣ Erikson: identity achievement, Marcia: foreclosure, moratorium, achievement ‣ Erikson: role confusion, Marcia: diffusion ‣ Achievement is a crisis with a commitment at the end ‣ Moratorium is a crisis you're still in with no commitment yet ‣ Foreclosure is commitment without a crisis ‣ Diffusion is no commitment and no crisis ◦ Identity formation ‣ Happens after adolescence too. ‣ 18-21 full of status changes ‣ Different aspects of identity can be at different levels of commitment ‣ General identity can be stable with different aspects in ﬂux ‣ Identity changes over time and with experiences • Studying abroad, tragedies ‣ Racial/ethnic identity • ‣ Gender identity ‣ Sexual identity
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