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Ed Psych

by: Crystal Neill
Crystal Neill
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Identity, moral development, social cognition
Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development
Ben Heddy
Class Notes
Education, Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Neill on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EIPT 3473 at University of Oklahoma taught by Ben Heddy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Oklahoma.

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Date Created: 05/05/16
• Process of ethnic identity achievement affected by many factors: ◦ How similar they look to dominant culture ◦ Reason for joining new culture ◦ How much they are accepted by dominant group ◦ How different your cultural values are from dominant group ◦ Family plays a huge role ‣ First source of info about dominant culture and ethnic identity ‣ Lens of perception child looks at the world with ‣ Model how to discuss cultural and ethnic issues ◦ Ethnic community ‣ Strong community supports families, supports strong ethnic identity ‣ Lets more things (school, religion, play) happen in ethnic context ‣ Role models which bolster ethnic identity ◦ Society ‣ Attitude: dominant culture positive toward ethnic group leads usually to positive identity achievement ‣ Ability to pass as a member of the dominant culture gives more options ‣ Girls may associate more strongly with dominant culture because of relational opportunities • Gender identity ◦ For teens who don't conform to gender, gender identity achievement is very important ◦ Binary Assumptions ‣ Sex=>gender • Only two: male and female ‣ Sexual orientation is either gay or straight ◦ Spectrum assumptions ‣ Biological sex, gender identity, expression, and orientation are all independent and can represent themselves in many different ways ◦ Sex: one's physical characteristics ‣ Male, female, intersex ◦ Gender identity: strongly held sense of being a certain gender ◦ Gender expression: how you express your gender to society ‣ Doesn't have to match identity ‣ Male, female, or androgynous ‣ Westheimer and McGinnis: gender expansive or genderqueer ◦ Sexual orientation ‣ Physical, emotional, romantic attractions ‣ Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, queer ‣ Westheimer and McGinnis: bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual ◦ Gender socialization ‣ Even babies can differentiate between sexes ‣ At age 3, boys and girls play different ways • Boys are active and carefree • Girls speak more and nurture in play • Many play activities and sports become identified with one gender ‣ The way we talk to different genders influences their identity ‣ By mid-elementary, kids know gender is based in biology • Understand it also has a social aspect • Understand some kids might not want things specific to their gender ◦ Gender segregation ‣ Preference for same gender as playmates by age 3 ‣ Adults don't have to reinforce it ‣ Gender segregation causes more gender segregation ‣ End of elementary school, start tentatively associating with other genders • Gender identity intensifies ◦ Gender identity formation factors ‣ Family acceptance makes a big difference ‣ Community • Gender-expansive helps with self-acceptance and providing role models ‣ Society • How much discrimination there is in the society as a whole ◦ Sexual identity ‣ Orientation, ideas about attractiveness, concept of self as sexual, tied to gender identity ‣ Formation affected by: • Family acceptance • Community ◦ Gay community helps with self-acceptance and provides role models • Society ◦ How much homophobia is present in the society Social Cognition • Understanding others minds, emotions, and behaviors • Infancy: ◦ Intersubjectivity: shared understanding of meaning ‣ Mom soothes baby, both understand it to be calming ‣ Psychological relationship ◦ Intentionality: why adults are doing certain behaviors ◦ Social referencing: look at adults to see how to react ‣ Dog barks, look at adult to see if they should be scared • Early childhood ◦ Language development lets kids express desires, feelings, thoughts, beliefs ◦ See that others also have these things by listening ◦ Find out these things can be different or even wrong ◦ Start developing theory of mind: the idea that other people have minds • Middle childhood ◦ Learn that people view events differently ◦ People can lie about feelings ◦ Thoughts and feelings affect each other • Early adolescence ◦ People can have many different emotions or thoughts ◦ Recursive thinking (thinking about thinking) • Late adolescence ◦ Beginning Psychologists ◦ Try to identify others thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and think about causes • Dodge's Model of Social Problem Solving (Info Processing) ◦ 1. Encoding: other people's emotions and thoughts ◦ 2. Interpretation: go to working memory and assign meaning to things ◦ 3. Formulate goal: what you want to accomplish ◦ 4. Generate possible strategies: based on what you've learned in the past ◦ 5. Evaluate possible strategies: based on what you've learned in the past ◦ 6. Enact solution: do what you were thinking ‣ Use outcome to evaluate future decisions ◦ Mental shortcuts ‣ Easier to deal with complex social situations ‣ Examples • Rely on word of authority figures • If something is expensive, it's better quality • One action someone does means that's their typical behavior ◦ Fundamental attribution error: we assume that what people do is because of their personality ◦ Social-cognitive biases ‣ Somewhat distort thought ‣ Jumping to conclusions ‣ Stereotypes and prejudices • Humans categorize so that we can make quick decisions • Tendency to go too far • Can come from models ◦ Either in reality ◦ Or in the media • Reinforced by confirmation bias: looking for what reinforces our beliefs ‣ Confronting bias • Look at people as individuals rather than group members • Confront prejudice with tact and counterevidence even if it causes uncomfortable situations • Support students in trying to be open-minded ◦ Helping social information processing ‣ Help kids: • Be aware of and interpret social cues • Increase toolbox of possible responses • Improve means-end thinking, how what they do will help them reach their goals • Think more about consequences • Practice responding appropriately • Practice being aware about social interactions • Control emotional outbursts • Control self-talk so it is positive rather than negative Moral Development • Distributive Justice ◦ Equality at 5 or 6 ‣ Fair is equal and nothing else ‣ No exceptions ◦ By merit at 6 to 7 ‣ Reward is proportional to contribution ‣ Paying someone back ◦ Benevolence at 8 and up ‣ Trying to compromise between equal, merit, and need ‣ Concern for disadvantages or special needs • Piaget ◦ Moral reasoning ◦ Heteronomous Stage: 5-9 ‣ Rules are morality, doesn't matter if they're unfair ◦ Autonomous Stage: 9-10 ‣ Morality is from your own rules • Kohlberg ◦ Built from Piaget ◦ Should Joe give his father the money? ‣ I think no. Promises are meant to be kept, and not only is Joe's father breaking the promise, he is taking Joe's side of the bargain. Joe earned the money. The father earns money that he uses to take care of Joe, but that is his job as a father. Joe has the right to his money. ◦ 3 levels of moral reasoning ‣ Pre-conventional ‣ Conventional ‣ Post-conventional ‣ Each has 2 within, =6 stages ‣ Universal with order maintained, pushed by disequilibrium in the form of dilemmas ‣ Pre-conventional • 1: focus on immediate consequences ◦ What's wrong is what's punished ◦ Mike would turn it in so he doesn't get in trouble • 2: marketplace morality ◦ Based on reciprocity ◦ Mike would take some out and then turn it in ‣ Conventional • 3: emphasis on relationship implications (early adolescence) ◦ Be a good person for approval and kindness from others ◦ Mike would turn it in and tell people • 4: implications on society (late adolescence) ◦ Follow society's rules or relational obligations ◦ Mike might take it to fulfill his obligation to his mom or leave it since stealing is against the law ‣ Post-conventional (into adulthood, not everyone reaches them) • 5: if laws aren't in others' best interests they should be changed so they're based on fairness ◦ Mike turns it in because they earned the money so it's fair they get to keep it • 6: universal principles of ethics more important than specific rules ◦ Mike would keep it because they weren't careful with it and he has the right to keep what he found ◦ Neo-Kohlbergian approach ‣ Focus on the way moral categories and schema are built up and change of time (eg. Rights, duty, justice) ‣ Based on schema developing over time, not hard and fast stages ‣ 3 schemas • Personal interest schema ◦ Emphasis on what the person can gain or lose, no consideration for broader society • Maintaining norms ◦ Ensuring fairness for everyone based on rules of society • Post-conventional ◦ All moral situations are open to scrutiny ◦ Reasoning based on logic ◦ Reciprocity for all societal members • Overlap between schemas ◦ Can use two at once (cross-stage logic) ◦ Gilligan claims gender effects moral reasoning ‣ Women use more care reasoning and men use more justice reasoning • Care reasoning: special needs, focus on relationships and responsibilities, conflicting responsibilities, moral dilemmas in personal terms. • Justice reasoning: impartiality, focus on rights and rules, logic of justice, concerned with competing rights


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