Week 8 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to posc 305 at Towson University taught by James H. Glenn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
5/4/16 Balancing Act • City governments are mechanisms for managing social and political differences • American cities have a history of violent unrest and racial and ethnic tensions often lie just beneath the surface • Political systems began to brome responsive to civil rights in the 60s • African Americans become empowered, Latinos soon follow • Incorporation within democratic process provides an opportunity for minorities to work from within • Affirmative action programs have changed the complexion of city government, but inequalities persist • The various levels of inequality and different tax policies (who the tax policies favor) have lead to increased racial and ethnic tensions Revolution • In 1967 Richard Hatch and Carl Stokes become mayors of Gary, IN and Cleveland, OH respectively • With election of Kurt Schmoke (Baltimore) every city of more than 100000 and a majority black population has had a black mayor • In the 80s Latinos began to assert political authority, gaining power to all levels of government and winning the mayors office in cities like Denver, CO and San Antonio • Black and Latino mayors faced unique challenges to avoid alienating white voters (who often make up a large part of the population) • Furthermore, mayors must strike a good relationship with the business community New York • 1990: 43% white, 25% black, 24% Latino, 8% Asian (also a large jewish population) • Despite a mix which would be ideal for a diverse racial coalition • Conservative white mayor Ed Koch served from 1977 to 1985, defeated by black Democrat David Dinkins (served one term), defeated by Republican Conservative Rudolph Guiliani Los Angeles • Tom Bradly was elected mayor in 1973 despite blacks making up no more than 14% of the city at any point • Unlike the fractured nature of New York, Bradley was able to become a symbol of racial pride for Blacks and Racial Harmony for Whites in LA • Bradly forged an alliance in the business community which helped him win reelection Incorporation • Political incorporation for blacks and Latinos has brought numerous benefits to both groups • First generation fought for programs to incase spending in health, education, housing and job training • Cities with black mayor and council members had a higher proportion of social welfare spending than other cities • The incorporation of minorities also increased voter turnout and the mobilization of new leaders • Incorporation also opened up public employment as a place for jobs • Incorporation also brought police reform • Minority mayors also creased a program which guaranteed a minimum percentage of city contracts be given to MBEs • However MBEs were often fronts for nonminorities or the contracts went to the all ready well off Coalition • Political coalitions across racial and ethnic group;s have been fragile in part b/c of unwillingness for state and federal government to increase funding for social programs • — incorporation has not lead to The changes, while important are still largely marginal significantly different taxing, spending or service policies • Incorporation has advocated for policies favored by the business community • However incorporation has led to people feeling better about local politics, blacks with a black mayor expressed more trust in government and paid more attention to local affairs Neighborhoods • Cities are also unique because they feature a neighborhood dynamic • Neighborhoods organizations and their strength vary from city to city, but they play a role everywhere • Neighborhood organizations combine public, foundation and private funds to provide services not always available through city • Neighborhoods have influence in city hall but are not most important force • Authority is generally very fragmented • There is usually great tension between neighborhoods and the business community New Voting Patterns • Historically cities have been associated with Democratic, and liberal politics, in the 80s this began to change • White working and middle class started to support candidates who promised to cut taxes, hold down spending • By 1990s national conservative movement came into local politics • These politicians were energized by racial, ethnic and class divisions and the fueled policies to get tough on crime • These new mayors signaled new policy directions for cities • These changes were driven in part by resentments about minority political demands, particularly affirmative action and busing. Higher taxes (from business groups), increased spending on social programs, and anxiety about crime and disorder • This includes Giuliani ’s broken window theory policies on page 389 • Despite the drop in urban crime attributed to new policing policies from city mayors and Bill Clinton, crime was already decreasing and was following a nationwide (so not urban specific) trend • Privatization of city services (like trash clean up) also became popular with mayors Racial and Ethnicity in the Future • Despite new trends, racial and ethnic voting are powerful forces within a city • By 2050 US will be majority minority, but minority groups are not monolithic • Blacks and Latinos have favorable views of each other but their harmony is fragile • The growing Latino population will in part determine how blackbrown tensions play out “Can People of Color achieve equality in City Government the Setting and the Issues” • Measurement is social and political capital, thus Hispanics being the largest minority group is very important • The ability of minorities to be involved in city government (and its perks) meant they had to control (be elected) to the powerful positions • Struggles took place through mobilization protest and finally appointment and representation and finally responsiveness Governing — Chapter 11 • Urban sprawl refers to lowdensity residential development • The result is people move and purchase land out of proportion with population growth rates • The downside is often congestion • Sprawl tends to be had to fight without government arrangements • Metro government became an ideal b/c it would reinforce that people are from one community, and community jurisdiction could best provide services • Challenges included different services and different tax rate, remember that ’s why some moved from the city in the first place • If areas will not merge under local government special districts are often created • Instead of sprawl, areas focused on Smart Growth where policies designated growth areas but protected other areas from development • New urbanism is a brief that land use, urban design, and architecture can revive a sense of community to make a place more livable Cities Decline • As cities grew downtown became synonymous with business interests, writers discussed down town as a microcosm of the American economic and social system • Downtown aka central business district, contained specialized buildings for commerce and professional activities which is different from the mixed • Just prior to the Great Depression, manufacturing was beginning a slow exodus to the suburbs due to the network of highways ad truck transportation • Modern manufacturing required more inexpensive land • Shopping centers moved to suburbs • Transportation became centered on the automobile • Civil rights protests, and racial violence stigmatized downtowns and cities • White women (who are responsible for a large share of the shopping) stopping going to th3e city shopping areas in favor of suburban shopping\ • City economies deindustrialized beginning in the 70s, technology replaced workers City Rebirth • The loss of manufacturing jobs was accompanied by a rise in service jobs • 80% of employment growth in the 80s came from service jobs • Cities started to grow servicesector jobs like finance, corporate employment and tourism • Cities started used tax incentives • New population in downtowns has been driven by emptynest retirees and affluent young professionals • This has led to gentrification, where these new residents lead to increased property values and in the process displace lowerincome families and small businesses • Richard Florida has argued that the creative class is highly educated professionals with rarified intellectual, analytic, artistic and creative skills • This group places higher value on quality of life than anything else • Florida ’s argument is controversial • Tourism, entertainment and culture are crucial to downtown revival • Cities invest to make themselves into a place people want to visit, this was hard to do giving the stigma of racial violence associated with cities • The includes the construction of convention facilities, competition for conventions is very intense • In addition to convention halls cities compete for sports facilities (and teams) often losing money • Cities argue that sports teams are part a cities cultural fabric • Cities have begun to look to unique shopping and casino gaming as ways to lure entertainment dollars Are European Cities Better • Cities grow in 3 ways: crowding in, up (in high rises) or out to the periphery, european cities do not sprawl like American cities • Agriculture subsides has incentivized small farmers to stay in business in Europe, Americans have lower gas prices , and European higher taxes • The result is an environment where farmers protect their land, Americans are encouraged to live further from city and higher taxes means things like cars are more expensive (thus a bicycle culture) • American tax policy encourages spending not saving — particular if you want to buy a house, Europe, after WW2 had to build emergency apartment housing had to build emergency apartment housing for people and offering housing subsidies to a large portion of the citizen this effectively created mixed income housing • American concentrated public housing among the poor, leading to social ills • American built highways to encourage automobile travel • American with its federal system puts more burden on local government to pay for services, European cities get more revenue from central government • The flip side thought for America to copy Europe we would have to raise taxes, more heavily regulated economy and stifle innovation • The key takes away is there a hard policy tradeoffs which have to be made Globalization • City revitalization and economic globalization has led to cities being divided: one whitecollar and professional, and one low wage service jobs • The low wage service jobs are often seasonal and associated with immigrants and ethnic minorities • Cities use to be divided between the city center and white wealthy suburbs, but this is no longer true, the area is more diverse but it is unclear if the underlying economics have changed • City politics are still a mixture of competing priorities Aggressive Agenda • Federal and market choices have encourages suburbanization including jobs, housing and travel A Progressive Agenda—Solution • Metropolitan transpiration fund • Tax credits encourage use of light trail and value pacing and tolls to decrease traffic at peak congestion • Create more affordable housing • Expand opportunities for middle class to live near work • Tax ancestries to boost home ownerships in places where ownership rates are low • Government should make more use of vouchers in housing market to offer choice • Deny highway money if areas are practicing exclusionary housing practices
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