Week 15 Health Psych
Week 15 Health Psych Psyc 400
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Riley on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 400 at Humboldt State University taught by Carrie Aigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
Week 15 Class Notes Tuesday, 3 May 2016 *FINAL EXAM on TUESDAY 10 MAY @ 3:00pm – 4:50pm!! Exercise Benefits CONT… a. Protects against osteoporosis i. Osteoporosis: Reduction in bone density due to calcium loss 1. Results in brittle bones ii. Major source of disability among older women iii. 1 in 2 women and up to 1 in 4 men age 50 and older will break a bone due to osteoporosis iv. “Silent Disease” 1. You can’t feel your bones getting weaker a. Breaking a bone is often the first sign that you have osteoporosis v. Exercises to prevent osteoporosis 1. Strength training a. Weight lifting, water resistance 2. High impact aerobic a. Running, jumping, stair climbing 3. Stretching and balance exercises a. Prevents falls and strengthens muscles vi. Women who have been physically active throughout their lives generally have stronger bones than women who have led more sedentary lives vii. Exercise in childhood and young adulthood may be especially important 1. Former athlete have higher bone density in older adulthood than non-athletes b. How Much Vitamin D Do you Need? Women and Men Under age 50 400-800 international units (IU) Daily Age 50 + 800-1,000 IU Daily i. Vitamin helps your body to absorb calcium c. How much calcium do you need? i. The amount of calcium you need every day depends on your age and sex Women Under age 50 1000mg/day Age 51 + 1,200mg/day Men Under age 70 1000mg/day Age 71 + 1200mg/day ii. The biological activity of 40 IU is equal to 1 mcg iii. Fatty fish are best sources of vitamin D iv. Calcium 1. 1 cup low-fat milk = 350mg 2. 1 serving broccoli = 44mg II. Psychological Health (Exercise benefits) a. Depression i. Lifetime prevalence 1. Women = 25% 2. Men = 12% ii. People who are more physically active are less depressed 1. What causes the correlations? a. Is it depression that hinders physical activity? b. Does physical activity change your mood? c. Both are true; they influence each other both ways 2. Depression relates to Physical Activity a. Study i. RCT assigned people with depression to exercise group or control group 1. Exercise Group = 30mins for 3x/week 2. Control Group = no exercise 3. Those in the exercise group had greater improvements in depression symptoms, compared to the control b. Exercise may have comparable effect sizes to CBT or antidepressant medication i. Mechanisms: physiological 1. Serotonin? 2. Endorphins? ii. Placebo? c. Exercise enhances psychological well-being and reduces stress: i. Workers at one worksite assigned to exercise or control group ii. Those in the exercise group reported higher quality of life and lower stress at 24 weeks than those in the control group 1. 10 minutes is all it takes for mood effects III. Exercise and the Placebo Effect a. Mind Set Matters i. Does placebo influence exercise outcomes? 1. 84 female hotel attendants participates 2. Placebo group told that their activity was meeting requirements for exercise 3. Follow-up at 4-weeks 4. Over the course of the study, the percentage of informed subjects who reported exercising regularly (perceived regular exercise) doubled (39.4% to 79.4%), and the average amount of exercise that subjects in the informed group believed themselves to be getting (perceived amount of exercise) increased by more than 20%. 5. It is important to note that although the informed room attendants did report higher levels of exercise at the end of the study, they did not report getting any additional exercise outside of work. 6. In addition, although the subjects in the informed group showed a significant increase in recognizing their work as a form of exercise, their actual workload did not change. a. Thus, the changes in reported physical activity appear to be attributable not to actual increases in physical activity, but to a shift in mind-set initiated by the information given to them in the intervention. 7. Placebo group had decrease in BMI, BP, and waist-hip ratio 8. Actual activity level in work and outside of work did not change in either group a. Although placebo group perceived greater activity i. Why is this important? 9. What could explain these findings? a. EX: i. I tell you “your work meets requirements for exercise” à ii. You start to exercise more à iii. You lose weight b. Interesting concept, but needs to be replicated still c. Doesn’t mean exercise benefits are all in your head d. Maybe benefits can be enhanced by placebo mechanisms IV. Measuring Physical Activity a. Retrospective recall (self-report) b. Ecological momentary assessment (Self-report) c. Accelerometers and pedometers i. Many phones use accelerators, a device made up of axis-based motion sensing. ii. Measures distance, not intensity iii. Can fail to pick up on non-distance movement d. Big Problem: Self-report used most often, but not very accurate! i. People are not always honest about their reporting due to wanting to seem a certain way. 1. Memory also fails people as well e. Social desirability is associated with over reporting of physical activity f. Crowne-Marlow Social Desirability Scale i. The scale we took in class V. Trends in Inactivity a. Trends in the US i. Americans are less physically active today than 50 years ago, especially big declines among children 1. About half meet CDC physical activity requirements a. 48% 2. More time is now spent in cars a. Especially in adults b. Rely more on cars to get from point A to point B c. Generationally we walk less from one place to another 3. More time is now spent watching television a. Encompasses also: i. Phone ii. Internet iii. Videogames iv. Etc. 4. Among other reasons ii. Sedentary Lifestyles 1. Highest closer to the middle-east US (the Appalachia area) a. Higher levels of smoking and obesity existed in this region as well. 2. Higher Car use since 1950s 3. Income’s correlation to activity levels with walking/biking a. No car – highest amount of trips by w/b i. Higher income higher b. 1 Car i. Higher income = more trips c. 2 Cars i. Higher income – more trips d. 3 Cars i. Lower income = more trips 4. More cars correlates to less w/b trips VI. The Built Environment a. What is it? i. The environment we build in which to live 1. Including: a. Homes b. Streets c. Greenery d. Businesses e. Sidewalks f. Bike lanes g. Parks h. Common Spaces i. ETC Thursday, 5 May 2016 2. Relates to obesity and inactivity VII. What factors make an environment more conducive to healthy living? a. Greater land-use mix associated with lower BMI i. Residential, public, commercial b. Greater green space associates with greater physical activity c. Fast Food restaurant density associated with higher BMI d. Public Transit Density associated with lower BMI and greater Physical activity i. Study in Portland, OR. 1. Sample stratified for SES and ethnicity. 2. In all models, neighborhood-level covariates included residential density, median household income, and percentage of African-American and Hispanic residents. 3. Based on prior studies, a. 19–23 resident-level covariates included i. age ii. gender iii. race/ethnicity iv. employment status v. home ownership vi. household income vii. health status viii. fruit and vegetable intake ix. fried-food consumption. 4. BMI, used as a resident-level covariate, was included in the four physical activity models. VIII. Physical Activity in the US a. What do studies need to control for in cross-sectional studies like this? i. SES ii. Levels of fitness iii. Diet iv. BMI v. Self-selection of living area b. Is it possible that people ‘self-select’ to certain neighborhoods? i. Yes ii. What does this mean? 1. People with more money have more mobility to live in certain areas 2. ETC. c. SES, and several sociodemographic variables including: i. Fruit and vegetable intake ii. Health status iii. Etc. d. Considering Overall Walkability i. Walking by Metropolitan Statistical Area 1. Larger MSA w/ Transit = 14.0 percent of trips made by walking 2. Larger MSA w/o Transit = 8.4% 3. Smaller MSA = 6.6% 4. Not in MSA = 6.6%