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Week 6 - Monday Notes

by: Anastassia Erudaitius

Week 6 - Monday Notes BIOL 123 001

Anastassia Erudaitius

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About this Document

No lecture Wednesday, and Midterm is Friday. These notes cover what Dr. Rao discussed in Monday's Lecture.
Dr. Rao
Class Notes
Rao, UCR, Virology, 123, Bio, comparative, week, 6
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastassia Erudaitius on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 123 001 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Rao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Virology in Biology at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 05/05/16
Comparative Virology Lecture 5/2/16  Endemic – steady state of diseases  Epidemic – sudden outbreak, sudden increase in the number of outbreaks  Sporadic – not a constant rate  Pandemic – worldwide epidemic o Ebola  Influenza incubation period: 1-3 days  Chicken pox incubation period: 2-3 weeks to show symptoms after exposure  Know definitions on lecture slides  Edward Jenner o Noticed that the milkmaid had some pustules from cowpox but she never got infected by smallpox  that means she must have had some immunity o Son developed resistance to smallpox o Start of vaccinations  John Snow o He found out that cholera disease was spreading in London very rapidly o Initially they thought the disease was due to “bad air” o He realized that cholera was related to some type of pathogen o He discovered that all the people that drank water from a specific pump (broadstreet pump) developed cholera disease o Showed how you could trace the origin of a disease  Florence Nightingale o Noticed a lot of the deaths of soldiers wasn’t due to war, but actually from secondary infections o Many of the soldiers could have survived if the proper sanitary conditions were followed  Age is one of the major contributing factors to disease transmission o Very young children haven’t developed immunity yet o Older people have weakened immunity o Young and older groups are more susceptible  Sex o Some diseases are prevalent in men, and some more in women  Herd immunity – in a given community it depends on how many people have been vaccinated against the disease  those who have been vaccinated will prevent the spread of the disease  Lacking herd immunity – people are not vaccinated and the disease will spread very quickly from person to person  Have to monitor how the virus spreads and where it appeared  Quarantine is the best method of prevention o Monitor who enters and exits o Patient is isolated from everyone else so disease will not spread  ETEC diarrhea – Entero-toxic E.coli diarrhea  Most of the diseases in summer are transmitted via mosquitos  CDC will tell you what precautions to take in what areas (corresponding to prevalent diseases in those specific areas)  When travelling one must consider: o What insect vectors are in the area and which diseases they carry o A lot of diseases can be transmitted via contaminated food and water  must determine whether or not the area has contaminated food or water o Whether or not there are medical facilities in the area that can deal with the illness  Trees have been removed, so bats have been displaced and started transmitting the virus to the village  Influenza virus – a lot of people died because of influenza rather than WWI  Smallpox was introduced via blankets (mentioned in lecture 1)  U.S. life expectancy has increased since 1900s o Sanitary conditions have improved o Drug treatment has also improved  In Middle East – MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) o Many people traveled between Europe and Middle East, many people died as it spread o Traced the virus back to Middle East o The virus entered the human population via camels and camel milk o People who drank the camel milk are the people who got infected o Many restrictions/strict rules developed to prevent spread of virus  Zika Virus o Virus is spreading very rapidly o It is not a newly emerging virus o First isolated in 1947 in Africa (Uganda)  Where the mosquito population is most prevalent (because it is warm) o NOT a new virus o Spread from Africa to Asia, then eventually a huge outbreak of Zika virus occurred in South America in 2014-2016 o Causes microcephaly  Brains are small o Not only children are affected o Symptoms appear to be flu-like  Muscle ache  Fever o Spread to U.S. o Transmitted by insects (mosquitos)! o Two countries working to develop vaccine  Note: HIV cannot infect mice! So you cannot study HIV vaccinations in mice  No class Wednesday  Midterm will be cumulative!  Majority of questions will be on content after last midterm  Same format as Midterm 1 o Don’t need to know any dates o Remember all names o Need to know only the basics


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