Week 15 - Behavioral Neuroscience
Week 15 - Behavioral Neuroscience PSYC 4183-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celine Notetaker on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4183-001 at University of Arkansas taught by Nathan Parks in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Week 15 – Behavioral Neuroscience Example Question: Following Bilateral medial temporal damage, monkey performance in a DNMS task a) Will be best at long delays b) Will be best at short delays c) Will not differ from sham monkeys Answer: B Example Question: Hippocampal damage leads primarily to retrograde amnesia Answer: FALSE (+retrograde amnesia is fairly uncommon) Example Question: What task is often used to test spatial memory in rats? Answer: Morris Water Maze Memory continued… <-- Image: Implicit memory task involving cards Hippocampal group or those with Anterograde amnesia had improvement in their ability to predict the “weather” with this task although they would have no recollection of the task after some time. This implies that: - They can acquire implicit memory/procedural memory - Motor skills and subconscious learning is still intact - Explicit memory cannot be developed Parkinson’s group did not improve their ability to predict the “weather” even after 50 trials. They were able to still remember all the details of the task just as well as the control group. This implies that: - They cannot develop implicit memory since they could not learn a pattern of sensory visual input - They have good explicit memory Neural Circuitry of Memory Working Memory: Active, short-term store of information. - When you don’t need it, it is gone - Through rehearsal the memory can be kept to transfer it to short-term memory and then eventually to long-term memory Commone rule for working memory: 5-9 digits can be stored for a brief time in working memory. “chunking” helps you to remember one, like remembering your own area code in a phone number allows you to chunk 3 digits as one idea. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) - Made up of several regions of the prefrontal cortex -Crucial for proper working memory function Damage - Damage to DLPFC does not mean you lose or no longer have working memory - Working memory will probably get worse - Theory: Each sensory modality has its own form of working memory; i.e. working memory is a system Emotion Emotions: Subjective feelings accompanied by particular psychological states 3 types of response: - Behavioral - Autonomic - Hormonal Affective Neuroscience: A currently changing field that’s attempting to remove subjectivity of emotional description Limbic System: Network of brain structures involved in representing and expressing emotion 3 Critical structures: - Amygdala - Hypothalamus - Ventromedial prefrontal cortex Other included structures: - Cingulate cortex - Mediodorsal nucleus - Ventral portions of basal ganglia 1. Amygdala = threat processing o Allows one to acquire implicit memory of stimuli that is a threat o Forms phobias due to coincidental association of something as a threat i.e. A rat sees a cat toy and is scared because it is associated with a presence of a cat - Fearful faces evoke an increased response in the amygdala relative to a neutral face o there is NO difference between happy and neutral faces with amygdala activity Kluver – Bucy Syndrome: Bizarre behaviors that occur following a bilateral temporal lobotomy o including a DECREASED fear response (w/ amygdala damage) Focal Bilateral Amygdalae Damage: - causes a deficit in fear response - Patient SM, AM and BG famously have focal bilateral amygdalae damage - They still understand when they are in unfavorable/dangerous situations but will not have an emotional/physiological reaction to these situations **Twins, AM and BG: had a (so far unexplainable) situation where they were given increased carbon dioxide in their bloodstream and ended up experiencing fear! **NOTE: Patient S.M. cannot accurately recognize fearful emotional faces. Fear conditioning with Patient SM versus Control group - Study paired stimulus with pain Fear conditioning Physiological fear responses were measured such as Heart rate and skin conductance (sweaty palms) - Control group: Reacted to their conditioned stimulus with an increase in physiological fear responses - Patient SM: showed NO change in fear response measures with the conditioned stimulus Example Question: Rats have an innate threat response to the odor of feline urine how will this response change following bilateral damage to the amygdalae? a) The rat will completely lose its sense of smell b) The rat will continue to show a threat response to the odor as this response is not learned c) The rat will no longer show a threat response to odor Answer: C. the rat will no longer show a threat response to the odor **The first response Rats show is freezing when rats see a threat Fear conditioning with rats pairing a beep sound with a shock so that rats learn to fear the beep sound Important Nuclei of the Amygdala: - Lateral Nucleus: Where learning in the amygdala occurs o Damage= equivalent to “forgetting”all your fears - Central Nucleus: takes output from lateral nucleus and triggers other systems to deal with the stimulus/threat o Via fight or flight, or some other physiological response o Damage= gets rid of any response to fear o Get different responses based on where information is sent: 1. Hypothalamus autonomic response 2. periaqueductal gray matter behavioral reaction 3. cerebral cortex emotional experience Lateral Nucleus: - Lateral nucleus receives sensory information from the thalamus and cortex - Fear acquisition is mediated by long-term potentiation (LTP) Fast Pathway-direct input from thalamic nuclei - Helps with survival - Aids in innate fear response Slow pathway-indirect input from cortical sensory areas - This pathway is used to differentiate the more complex stimuli - i.e.: if a rat is conditioned to fear a tone that’s 1000Hz and trained to not fear a 100Hz tone it can discriminate thanks to the cortex o Damage to slow pathway: destroys the ability to discriminate between fine differences 2. Hypothalamus Early studies of aggressions demonstrated that transectioning the forebrain but leaving posterior regions of the hypothalamus intact resulted in sham rage. - Removal of the entire hypothalamus did not induce sham rage Different forms of Aggression Stimulating the medial hypothalamus induces affective aggression Affective Aggression: A response to a threat typically with some form of intimidation (i.e. a cat hissing) Stimulating the lateral hypothalamus induces predatory aggression o linked to hunger and feeding 3. Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (vmPFC) Plays an important role in the control of emotional behavior Phineas Gage: Famous patient with injury to vmPFC lower ability to regulate and control emotion In the 1930s frontal lobotomies were used to treat a number of emotional disorders. - Lobotomized patients exhibited blunted affect and a loss of emotional control Those with damage to vmPFC have a more logical approach to decision making than emotion based decision aking Tied to psychopathic tendencies but low correlation Subgenual Cingulate + Depression On average, those with low activity in anterior cingulate cortex is associated with unipolar depression In normal subjects, there is HIGH activity in the anterior cingulate cortex when recalling sad events
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