PSYC CH. 14
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Ch 14. Personality Personality a person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Psychodynamic theories Psychodynamic theories focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experience Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective Physician from vienna specialising disorders with neurological basis Glove anesthesia Used techniques of dream analysis and free association Psychoanalysis freud’s personality theory that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts Personality development Personality arises from conflict among interacting systems Id pleasure principle Ego reality principle Superego consider real and ideal Oedipus complex during phallic stage, boy's sexual desires towards mother; jealousy and hatred towards other; castration anxiety Electra complex girls development of penis envy; attachment to father; fear of mother Resolve oedipus or electra complex, identity it samesex parent, and develop gender identity Fixation lingering focus of pleasureseeking energies in earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved Defense mechanisms Ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression underlies all others NeoFreudian and psychodynamic theories Agreement with freud Presence of id, ego, and superego Importance of unconscious Shaping of personality during childhood Use of defense mechanisms to deal with anxiety Disagreement with freud Importance of consciousness Sex and aggression aren't everything Evaluating freud's psychodynamic perspective Modern research contradicts many of freud's ideas Development doesn't stop in childhood Underestimated peer influence Gender identity develops before age 56 Alternative explanations for dreams and slips of tongue No evidence that suppressed sexuality causes psychological disorders Modern research challenges the idea of repression People more often remember,and remember vividly, traumatic events that freud predicted should be repressed Humanistic Theories Focus on healthy people's drive for selfdetermination and selfrealization Selfconcept: thoughts and feelings about who we are Hierarchy of needs Studied healthy people to determine common traits of selfactualization Rogers’ personcentered perspective Three characteristics of growthpromoting climate Genuineness transparency with feelings Acceptance offer unconditional positive regard total acceptance of another person Empathy share and mirror others’ feelings Bias in maslow’s conceptualization of what selfactualization is Heavy emphasis on individualism, which may lead to selfindulgence, etc. Underemphasized the bad in people and situations Trait Theories Trait characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel and act Trait theories first described by Gordon Allport More concerned with describing behaviors than explaining them Exploring traits Factor analysis: statistical analysis used to identify clusters of traits Eysenck’s major personality factors extraversion : e.g. sociable, lively, active, assertive, etc. Neuroticism: e.g. anxious, depressed, moody, tense Psychoticism: e.g aggressive, egocentric, creative, cold The big five factors: spells out CANOE Stability Emotional instability, extraversion, and openness decrease in early and middle adulthood Heritability About 50% Predictive of other behavioral attributes Evaluating trait theories Personsituation controversy Behavior is interaction of inner disposition and environment Traits are relatively stable but specific behaviors often change To get better sense of personality, average over many situations Personality tests are weak predictors of behaviors Formal vs. informal situation SocialCognitive Theories Socialcognitive perspective: behavior is influenced by interactions between traits (including thinking) and social context First proposed by albert bandura Reciprocal determinism: interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment Different people choose different environments Personalities shape how we interpret and react to events Personalities create situations to which we react Personal control: extent to which we perceive control over our environment Internal vs. external locus of control External locus of control: perception that our fate is controlled by chance or outside forces that are beyond our personal control Internal locus of control: perception that we control our own fate Achieve more in school, act independently, feel less depressed, lower hypertension, and less obesity Depleting and strengthening selfcontrol Self control ability to control impulses and delay short term gratification for greater, long term rewards Predict good judgement, better grades, social success Practicing self control can make you tired and make it harder to practice self control again before a rest period Learned helplessness vs. personal control Learned helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events Lack of control leads to lower morale and higher stress Too much choice can have negative consequences Optimism vs. pessimism Optimists generally believe they can accomplish things and have a higher perception of self control Excessive optimism Some pessimism helps motivate people to plan for negative events Blindness to one’s own incompetence
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