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by: Kristen Pruett

PSYC CH. 14 Psych100

Kristen Pruett

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About this Document

Ch 14. Personality
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 05/06/16
Ch 14.  Personality    Personality ­ a person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting    Psychodynamic theories  ­ Psychodynamic theories ­ focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood  experience  ­ Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective  ­ Physician from vienna specialising disorders with neurological basis  ­ Glove anesthesia  ­ Used techniques of dream analysis and free association  ­ Psychoanalysis ­ freud’s personality theory that attributes thoughts and actions to  unconscious motives and conflicts  ­ Personality development  ­ Personality arises from conflict among interacting systems   ­ Id ­ pleasure principle  ­ Ego ­ reality principle  ­ Superego ­ consider real and ideal    ­ Oedipus complex ­ during phallic stage, boy's sexual desires towards  mother; jealousy and hatred towards other; castration anxiety  ­ Electra complex ­girls development of penis envy; attachment to father;  fear of mother  ­ Resolve oedipus or electra complex, identity it same­sex parent, and  develop gender identity   ­ Fixation ­ lingering focus of pleasure­seeking energies in earlier  psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved   ­ Defense mechanisms  ­ Ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously  distorting reality  ­ Repression underlies all others    ­ Neo­Freudian and psychodynamic theories  ­ Agreement with freud  ­ Presence of id, ego, and superego  ­ Importance of unconscious  ­ Shaping of personality during childhood  ­ Use of defense mechanisms to deal with anxiety  ­ Disagreement with freud  ­ Importance of consciousness  ­ Sex and aggression aren't everything  ­  Evaluating freud's psychodynamic perspective  ­ Modern research contradicts many of freud's ideas  ­ Development doesn't stop in childhood  ­ Underestimated peer influence   ­ Gender identity develops before age 5­6  ­ Alternative explanations for dreams and slips of tongue   ­   No evidence that suppressed sexuality causes psychological disorders   ­ Modern research challenges the idea of repression  ­ People more often remember,and remember vividly, traumatic events that  freud predicted should be repressed   Humanistic Theories  ­ Focus on healthy people's drive for self­determination and self­realization  ­ Self­concept: thoughts and feelings about who we are  ­ Hierarchy of needs  ­ Studied healthy people to determine common traits of self­actualization    ­ Rogers’ person­centered perspective  ­ Three characteristics of growth­promoting climate  ­ Genuineness ­ transparency with feelings  ­ Acceptance ­ offer unconditional positive regard ­ total acceptance of  another person  ­ Empathy ­ share and mirror others’ feelings  ­ Bias in maslow’s conceptualization of what self­actualization is   ­ Heavy emphasis on individualism, which may lead to self­indulgence, etc.  ­ Underemphasized the bad in people and situations  Trait Theories  ­ Trait ­ characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel and act  ­ Trait theories first described by Gordon Allport  ­ More concerned with describing behaviors than explaining them  ­ Exploring traits  ­ Factor analysis: statistical analysis used to identify clusters of traits  ­ Eysenck’s major personality factors  ­ extraversion : e.g. sociable, lively, active, assertive, etc.  ­ Neuroticism: e.g. anxious, depressed, moody, tense  ­ Psychoticism: e.g aggressive, egocentric, creative, cold      ­ The big five factors: spells out CANOE  ­ Stability  ­ Emotional instability, extraversion, and openness decrease in early and  middle adulthood  ­ Heritability  ­ About 50%  ­ Predictive of other behavioral attributes    ­ Evaluating trait theories  ­ Person­situation controversy  ­ Behavior is interaction of inner disposition and environment   ­ Traits are relatively stable but specific behaviors often change  ­ To get better sense of personality, average over many situations  ­ Personality tests are weak predictors of behaviors  ­ Formal vs. informal situation   Social­Cognitive Theories  ­ Social­cognitive perspective: behavior is influenced by interactions between traits  (including thinking) and social context   ­ First proposed by albert bandura   ­ Reciprocal determinism: interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and  environment  ­ Different people choose different environments  ­ Personalities shape how we interpret and react to events  ­ Personalities create situations to which we react   ­ Personal control: extent to which we perceive control over our environment  ­ Internal vs. external locus of control  ­ External locus of control: perception that our fate is controlled by chance or  outside forces that are beyond our personal control   ­ Internal locus of control: perception that we control our own fate  ­ Achieve more in school, act independently, feel less depressed, lower  hypertension, and less obesity   ­ Depleting and strengthening self­control  ­ Self control ­ ability to control impulses and delay short term gratification  for greater, long term rewards  ­ Predict good judgement, better grades, social success  ­ Practicing self control can make you tired and make it harder to  practice self control again before a rest period   ­ Learned helplessness vs. personal control  ­ Learned helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or  human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events  ­ Lack of control leads to lower morale and higher stress  ­ Too much choice can have negative consequences  ­ Optimism vs. pessimism  ­ Optimists generally believe they can accomplish things and have a higher  perception of self control  ­ Excessive optimism  ­ Some pessimism helps motivate people to plan for negative events    ­ Blindness to one’s own incompetence  


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