Bio1306 Week 12 Notes
Bio1306 Week 12 Notes Bio 1306
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GEOL 1313 - 002
Diana Hernandez Vega
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Vicariance Events Large-scale speciation events caused by geological or climatic events Orogenic Events Mountain building events can affect vicariance events. Ex: the closing of the Panamian portal between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean was a vicariant event that impacted ocean currents. Ch. 42 Abundance of individuals in populations is influenced by Populations population density and population size. Population abundance Influenced by: 1) Adaptations in the species’ niche 2) The quality of an organisms’ habitat Survivorship curves Type 1: most offspring produced in a generation survive into adulthood. Mortality rates are low until the old ages are reached. Ex: elephants and human beings in developed countries Type 2: Mortality rate is constant throughout the years. Ex: eggs, young eagles, humans in undeveloped countries. Basically, they all have an equal chance of dying at any time. Type 3: Most of the offspring die before maturing but if they make it to adulthood they live a long time. Ex: oak trees produce lots of acorns but only a few adult trees. Fecundity strategies Tied to females. 1) Dispersing numerous fertilized eggs in a large area 2) Heavy parental care for one offspring at a time Exponential Growth The intrinstic natural rate of increase is exponential. Exponential growth shows as a J-shape on a graph Logistic Growth The initial exponential growth slows down as the population reaches its carrying capacity. It shows as an s-shape on the graph. Carrying capacity: the number of organisms that a region can support. Determined by limiting factors. Ch. 43 Interspecific Interactions Interactions between different species Interspecific Competition An individual in the community has a way of making a living in its habitat. The success of doing this depends on its fitness. When two or more individuals compete for the same resources, one species will be less efficient or will lead to a species dying from the community. When a species that lives with another species harms the other Amensalism one but does not benefit from doing so. Ex: elephants crushing plant species while walking around/ Ch. 44 Processes that cause 1) Extinction and colonization communities to change 2) Disturbance over time 3) Climate Change Extinction and When individuals are produced, instead of reproducing, they colonization disperse into surrounding areas. Some die and some find a place that they successfully survive in. Organisms dispersing into other areas is colonization. Disturbance An event that causes environmental change such as wildfires, hurricanes, etc. These can cause the extirpation of a species or give an opportunity for new species to colonize. Disturbance is followed by succession. Succession Different species will come into the community to colonize. Species will be replaced with new species over and over until a climax community is reached. Primary Succession Succession that starts with an area that has no vegetation at all. Secondary Succession Succession that starts with an area that has some vegetation. Climate Change Today, species occur together that no longer inhabit the communities that they used to because of climate cycles. Species Diversity Affects the functioning of the community. Split into: Species richness: the total # of species in a community Species evenness: how similar species are in abundance Net Primary Productivity Increases with species richness. Species richness varies with latitude and region, island size, etc. Biogeochemical Cycles The water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, and sulfur cycle.
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