Information Technology Final Exam Notes
Information Technology Final Exam Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexus Hill on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Clayton State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Information T echnology FINAL E XAM N OTES All Software Application Software- is a set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task System software -is to help the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently (an example of system software is a computer operating system or OS). Bitmap Graphics A bitmap graphic is composed of a grid of tiny rectangular cells. Each cell is a picture element, commonly called a pixel. Each pixel is assigned a color, which is stored as a binary number. With eight bits used to represent each color value, one pixel requires 24 bits. Vector Graphics A vector graphic consists of a set of instructions for creating a picture Vector graphics include standard shapes such as circles and rectangles Vector graphics are used for line art, logos, simple illustrations, infographic elements, and diagrams created from scratch. Printers An ink jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper to form characters and graphics. Random Access Memory RAM (random access memory) is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system. In RAM, microscopic electronic parts called capacitors hold the bits that represent data. Microprocessors A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions. It is the most important, and usually the most expensive, component of a digital device. Circuits and Chips • An integrated circuit (IC) is a set of microscopic electronic circuits etched onto a thin slide of semiconducting material. • The terms computer chip, microchip, and chip are commonly used to refer to integrated circuits. Read-Only Access Memory • ROM (read-only memory) is a type of memory circuitry that is housed in a single integrated circuit on the system board. • ROM contains a small set of instructions and data called the boot loader which tell a digital device how to start Torrents • BitTorrent is a file sharing protocol that distributes the role of a file server across a collection of dispersed computers. • A BitTorrent network server breaks a movie file into pieces and begins to download those pieces to the first computer that requested the movie. Communication Systems • A communication network (or communication system) links together devices to data and information can be shared among them. • A communication channel is the medium used to transport information from one network device to another. • Wired channels transport data through wires and cables Communication Protocol • In the context of networks, a communication protocol refers to a set of rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another. • This process is called handshaking. • Networks use more than one protocol, and the collection of protocols for a network is referred to as a protocol stack. Packets • A packet is a parcel of data that is sent across a computer network; when packets reach their destination, they are reassembled into the original message according to their sequence numbers. • Communication networks use a technology called circuit switching, which establishes a private link between one telephone and another for the duration of a call. • A more efficient alterative to this process is packet switching technology, which divides a message into several packets that can be routed independently to their destination.
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