Life 103 Week 15
Life 103 Week 15 LIFE 103
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday May 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Behavior & Social Structures • Tinbergen’s 4 questions —what stimulus elicits the behavior and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response? (proximate) —how does the animal’s experience during growth and development inﬂuence the response? (proximate) —how does the behavior aid survival and reproduction? (ultimate) —what is the behavior’s evolutionary history? (ultimate) • what stimulus elicits the behavior and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response? —ﬁxed action patterns: innate behavior initiated by set stimulus and must run to completion once started —circadian/circannual rhythms: daily, seasonal, or yearly changes in behavior, physiology, etc. (typically inﬂuenced by seasonal cycles) how does the animal’s experience during growth and development inﬂuence the • response? —learned behaviors: behaviors modiﬁed by experience —imprinting: during sensitive periods animals are more sensitive to particular stimuli than other times in life —spatial learning and cognitive maps: remembering spatial structure of an environment and objects in it —associative learning: learning to make associations between experiences A. classical conditioning: learning to associate an arbitrary stimulus with an outcome (ex. Pavlov’s dog) B. operant conditioning: learning to associate a behavior with a reward —cognition and problem solving: forming knowledge through awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgment —social learning: learning through observation of others • how does the behavior aid survival and reproduction? —mating behavior and mate choice: mating systems inﬂuenced by patterns of parental investment and certainty of paternity A. monogamous mating B. polygamous mating: polygyny (one male with many females) or polyandry (one female with many males) • what is the behavior’s evolutionary history? —altruism: behaviors that are selﬂess (do not beneﬁt individual), can be explained by inclusive ﬁtness A. reciprocal altruism: selﬂess behaviors between non-related individuals • parasites and behavior —parasites can change behavior of hosts to beneﬁt themselves Conservation & Global Change • 1.9 million described species, many millions undescribed • current extinction rates are 1000x higher than past extinction rates • beneﬁts of biodiversity —food —medicine —innovations —economic services —ecosystem services • measuring species diversity —richness: count and compare numbers of species —endemism: how unique a species is to a certain place • threats to biodiversity —overharvesting —habitat destruction —invasive species A. feral hogs B. Norway and black rats C. domestic cats D. brown tree snake —climate change • keystone species - species that has disproportionately large impact on its ecosystem compared to its abundance • umbrella species - species that, when protected in appropriate habitat, indirectly protect large numbers of other species (typically require large areas of high quality habitat) re-wilding • —cores: well-protected areas —carnivores: large predators to maintain diversity and ecosystem functions —corridors: linking habitats of different levels of disturbance to create large scale corridors and support dispersal • conservation successes —European large carnivores: brown bears, wolves, lynx, wolverine —North American grizzly bears and wolves —northern elephant seals —black footed ferrets Sensing the Environment • sensory pathways —reception: sensory receptor detects stimulus —transduction: converts energy from stimulus to membrane potential —transmission: stimulus travels as nerve impulses —perception: brain interprets transmission • response to stimulus inﬂuenced by frequency of action potentials (either on or off) • ampliﬁcation - sensory stimuli strengthened during transduction by accessory structures or enzyme catalysts of secondary messengers in cells • sensory adaptation - receptors decrease responsiveness with continued stimulation • categories of receptors —mechanoreceptors: respond to mechanical energy (pressure, touch, motion, sound, etc.) —chemoreceptors: respond to chemical stimuli —electromagnetic receptors: respond to electromagnetic energy —thermoreceptors: respond to heat or cold —nociceptors: naked dendrites in epidermis that respond to pain ear shape determines what frequencies of sound (direct an reﬂected) are most • efﬁciently detected • photoreceptor - cell that converts light into stimulus via photosensitive proteins (visual pigments) • single evolutionary origin of vision indicated by shared genes that control photoreceptor development • electromagnetic reception in vertebrate vision —iris and pupil receives light —lenses focus light —retina lined with photoreceptors —2 shapes A. rods: more sensitive to light B. cones: detect color —rhodopsin: made of retinal (light absorbing molecule) and opsin (associated protein) • detecting electrical ﬁelds, such as those produced by muscle contraction —evolved from mechanoreceptors (lateral line system) —passive and active electroreception —“electric echolocation” • chemoreception —olfaction (smell) genes make up 3% of human genome —gustation: taste receptors in tongue —Vomeronasal organ (Jacobson’s organ): detects pheromones and molecules at very low concentration —Flehmen and “tasting” the environment
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